lsql-csv: A tool for CSV files data querying from the shell with short queries.

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lsql-csv is a tool for small CSV file data querying from a shell with short queries. It makes it possible to work with small CSV files like with a read-only relational databases. The tool implements a new language LSQL similar to SQL, specifically designed for working with CSV files in a shell. LSQL aims to be a more lapidary language than SQL. Its design purpose is to enable its user to quickly write simple queries directly to the terminal.


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Versions [RSS] 0.1.0.0, 0.1.0.1, 0.1.0.2, 0.1.0.3, 0.1.0.4, 0.1.0.5, 0.1.0.6
Change log CHANGELOG.md
Dependencies base (>=4.9 && <4.20), containers (>=0.5 && <0.8), Glob (>=0.10 && <0.11), lsql-csv, parsec (>=3.1 && <3.2), text (>=1.2 && <2.2) [details]
License GPL-3.0-only
Author Přemysl Šťastný
Maintainer p-w@stty.cz
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Home page https://github.com/stastnypremysl/lsql-csv/
Bug tracker https://github.com/stastnypremysl/lsql-csv/issues
Source repo head: git clone https://github.com/stastnypremysl/lsql-csv
this: git clone https://github.com/stastnypremysl/lsql-csv(tag v0.1.0.6)
Uploaded by stastnypremysl at 2024-05-08T22:54:00Z
Distributions NixOS:0.1.0.6, Stackage:0.1.0.6
Executables lsql-csv
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Readme for lsql-csv-0.1.0.6

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lsql-csv

lsql-csv is a tool for CSV file data querying from a shell with short queries. It makes it possible to work with small CSV files like with a read-only relational database.

The tool implements a new language LSQL similar to SQL, specifically designed for working with CSV files in a shell. LSQL aims to be a more lapidary language than SQL. Its design purpose is to enable its user to quickly write simple queries directly to the terminal - its design purpose is therefore different from SQL, where the readability of queries is more taken into account than in LSQL.

Installation

It is necessary, you had GHC (>=8 <9.29) and Haskell packages Parsec (>=3.1 <3.2), Glob (>=0.10 <0.11), base (>=4.9 <4.20), text (>=1.2 <2.2) and containers (>=0.5 <0.8) installed. (The package boundaries given are identical to the boundaries in Cabal package file.) For a build and an installation run:

make
sudo make install

Now the lsql-csv is installed in /usr/local/bin. If you want, you can specify INSTALL_DIR like:

sudo make INSTALL_DIR=/custom/install-folder install

This will install the package into INSTALL_DIR.

If you have installed cabal, you can alternatively run:

cabal install

It will also install the Haskell package dependencies for you.

The package is also published at https://hackage.haskell.org/package/lsql-csv in the Hackage public repository. You can therefore also install it directly without the repository cloned with:

cabal install lsql-csv

Running the unit tests

If you want to verify, that the package has been compiled correctly, it is possible to test it by running:

make test

This will run all tests for you.

lsql-csv - quick introduction

Examples

One way to learn a new programming language is by understanding concrete examples of its usage. The following examples are written explicitly for the purpose of teaching a reader, how to use the tool lsql-csv by showing him many examples of its usage.

The following examples might not be enough for readers, who don't know enough Unix/Linux scripting. If this is the case, please consider learning Unix/Linux scripting first before LSQL.

It is also advantageous to know SQL.

The following examples will be mainly about parsing of /etc/passwd and parsing of /etc/group. To make example reading more comfortable, we have added /etc/passwd and /etc/group column descriptions from man pages to the text.

File /etc/passwd has the following columns:

  • login name;
  • optional encrypted password;
  • numerical user ID;
  • numerical group ID;
  • user name or comment field;
  • user home directory;
  • optional user command interpreter.

File /etc/group has the following columns:

  • group name;
  • password;
  • numerical group ID;
  • user list separated by commas.

Hello World

lsql-csv '-, &1.2 &1.1'

This will print the second (&1.2) and the first column (&1.1) of a CSV file on the standard input. If you know SQL, you can read it like SELECT S.second, S.first FROM stdio S;.

Commands are split by commas into blocks. The first block is (and always is) the from block. There are file names or - (the standard input) separated by whitespaces. The second block in the example is the select block, also separated by whitespaces.

For example:

lsql-csv '-, &1.2 &1.1' <<- EOF
World,Hello
EOF

It returns:

Hello,World

Simple filtering

lsql-csv -d: '-, &1.*, if &1.3 >= 1000' </etc/passwd

This will print lines of users whose UID >= 1000. It can also be written as:

lsql-csv -d: 'p=/etc/passwd, p.*, if p.3 >= 1000'

lsql-csv -d: 'p=/etc/passwd, &1.*, if &1.3 >= 1000'

lsql-csv -d: '/etc/passwd, &1.*, if &1.3 >= 1000'

The -d: optional argument means the primary delimiter is :. In the few examples we used overnaming, which allows us to give a data source file /etc/passwd a name p.

If you know SQL, you can read it as SELECT * FROM /etc/passwd P WHERE P.UID >= 1000;. As you can see, the LSQL style is more compressed than standard SQL.

The output might be:

nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/var/empty:/bin/false
me:x:1000:1000::/home/me:/bin/bash

If you specify delimiter specifically for /etc/passwd, the output will be a comma delimited.

lsql-csv '/etc/passwd -d:, &1.*, if &1.3 >= 1000'

It might return:

nobody,x,65534,65534,nobody,/var/empty,/bin/false
me,x,1000,1000,,/home/me,/bin/bash

This happens because the default global delimiter, which is used for the output generation, is a comma. The global delimiter changes by usage of the command-line optional argument, but remains unchanged by the usage of the attribute inside the from block.

Named columns

Let's suppose we have a file people.csv:

name,age
Adam,21
Petra,23
Karel,25

Now, let's get all the names of people in people.csv using the -n named optional argument:

lsql-csv -n 'people.csv, &1.name'

The output will be:

Adam
Petra
Karel

As you can see, we can reference named columns by the name. The named optional argument -n enables first-line headers. If first-line headers are enabled by the argument, each column has two names under &X - the number name &X.Y and the actual name &X.NAME.

Now, we can select all columns with a wildcard &1.*:

lsql-csv -n 'people.csv, &1.*'

As the output, we get:

Adam,21,21,Adam
Petra,23,23,Petra
Karel,25,25,Karel

The output contains each column twice because the wildcard &1.* was evaluated to &1.1, &1.2, &1.age, &1.name. How to fix it?

lsql-csv -n 'people.csv, &1.[1-9]*'

The output is now:

Adam,21
Petra,23
Karel,25

The command can also be written as

lsql-csv -n 'people.csv, &1.{1,2}'
lsql-csv -n 'people.csv, &1.{1..2}'
lsql-csv 'people.csv -n, &1.{1..2}'

The output will be in all cases still the same.

Simple join

Let's say, I am interested in the default group names of users. We need to join tables /etc/passwd and /etc/group. Let's do it.

lsql-csv -d: '/etc/{passwd,group}, &1.1 &2.1, if &1.4 == &2.3'

What does /etc/{passwd,group} mean? Basically, there are three types of expressions. The select, the from, and the arithmetic expression. In all select and from expressions, you can use the curly expansion and wildcards just like in bash.

Finally, the output can be something like this:

root:root
bin:bin
daemon:daemon
me:me

The first column is the name of a user and the second column is the name of its default group.

Basic grouping

Let's say, I want to count users using the same shell.

lsql-csv -d: 'p=/etc/passwd, p.7 count(p.3), by p.7'

And the output?

/bin/bash:7
/bin/false:7
/bin/sh:1
/bin/sync:1
/sbin/halt:1
/sbin/nologin:46
/sbin/shutdown:1

You can see here the first usage of the by block, which is equivalent to GROUP BY in SQL.

Basic sorting

Let's say, you want to sort your users by UID with UID greater than or equal to 1000 ascendingly.

lsql-csv -d: '/etc/passwd, &1.*, if &1.3 >= 1000, sort &1.3'

The output might look like:

me1:x:1000:1000::/home/me1:/bin/bash
me2:x:1001:1001::/home/me2:/bin/bash
me3:x:1002:1002::/home/me3:/bin/bash
nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/var/empty:/bin/false

The sort block is the equivalent of ORDER BY in SQL.

If we wanted descendingly sorted output, we might create a pipe to the tac command - the tac command prints the lines in reverse order:

lsql-csv -d: '/etc/passwd, &1.*, if &1.3 >= 1000, sort &1.3' | tac

About nice outputs

There is a trick, how to concatenate two values in the select expression: Write them without space.

But how will the interpreter know the ends of the values in a command? If the interpreter sees a char, that can't be part of the currently parsed value, it tries to parse it as a new value concatenated to the current one. You can use quotes for it - quotes themselves can't be part of most value types like the column name or numerical constant.

As an example, let's try to format our basic grouping example.

lsql-csv -d: 'p=/etc/passwd, "The number of users of "p.7" is "count(p.3)".", by p.7

The output might be:

The number of users of /bin/bash is 7.
The number of users of /bin/false is 7.
The number of users of /bin/sh is 1.
The number of users of /bin/sync is 1.
The number of users of /sbin/halt is 1.
The number of users of /sbin/nologin is 46.
The number of users of /sbin/shutdown is 1.

As you can see, string formatting is sometimes very simple with LSQL.

Arithmetic expression

So far, we just met all kinds of blocks, and only the if block accepts the arithmetic expression, and the other accepts the select expression. What if we needed to run the arithmetic expression inside the select expression? There is a special syntax $(...) for it.

For example:

lsql-csv -d: '/etc/passwd, $(sin(&1.3)^2 + cos(&1.3)^2)'

It returns something like:

1.0
1.0
1.0
0.9999999999999999
...
1.0

If we run:

lsql-csv -d: '/etc/passwd, $(&1.3 >= 1000), sort $(&1.3 >= 1000)'

We get something like:

false
false
...
false
true
true
...
true

More complicated join

Let's see more complicated examples.

lsql-csv -d: 'p=/etc/passwd g=/etc/group, p.1 g.1, if p.1 in g.4'

This will print all pairs of users and its group excluding the default group. If you know SQL, you can read it as SELECT P.1, G.1 FROM /etc/passwd P, /etc/group G WHERE G.4 LIKE '%' + P.1 + '%'; with operator LIKE case-sensitive and columns named by their column number.

How does in work? It's one of the basic string level "consist". If some string A is a substring of B, then A in B is true. Otherwise, it is false.

And the output?

root:root
root:wheel
root:floppy
root:tape
lp:lp
halt:root
halt:wheel

The example will work under the condition, that there isn’t any username, which is an infix of any other username.

More complicated...

The previous example doesn't give a very readable output. We can use group by to improve it (shortened as by).

lsql-csv -d: 'p=/etc/passwd g=/etc/group, p.1 cat(g.1","), if p.1 in g.4, by p.1'

The output will be something like:

adm:adm,disk,sys,
bin:bin,daemon,sys,
daemon:adm,bin,daemon,
lp:lp,
mythtv:audio,cdrom,tty,video,
news:news,

It groups all non-default groups of a user to a one line and concatenates it delimited by ,.

How can we add default groups too?

lsql-csv -d: 'p=/etc/passwd g=/etc/group, p.1 cat(g.1","), if p.1 in g.4, by p.1' |
lsql-csv -d: '- /etc/passwd /etc/group, &1.1 &1.2""&3.1, if &1.1 == &2.1 && &2.4 == &3.3'

This will output something like:

adm:adm,disk,sys,adm
bin:bin,daemon,sys,bin
daemon:adm,bin,daemon,daemon
lp:lp,lp
mythtv:audio,cdrom,tty,video,mythtv
news:news,news

The first part of the command is the same as in the previous example. The second part inner joins the output of the first part with /etc/passwd on the username and /etc/group on the default GID number and prints the output of the first part with an added default group name.

The examples will also work under the condition, that there isn’t any username, which is an infix of any other username.

Usage

Now, if you understand the examples, it is time to move forward to a more abstract description of the language and tool usage.

Options

-h
--help

Shows a short command line help and exits before doing anything else.

-n
--named

Enables the first-line naming convention in CSV files. With this option, the first lines of CSV files will be interpreted as a list of column names.

This works only on input files. Output is always without first-line column names.

-dCHAR
--delimiter=CHAR

Changes the default primary delimiter. The default value is ,.

-sCHAR
--secondary-delimiter=CHAR

Changes the default quote char (secondary delimiter). The default value is ".

Datatypes

There are 4 datatypes considered: Bool, Int, Double, and String. Bool is either true/false, Int is at least a 30-bit integer, Double is a double-precision floating point number, and String is an ordinary char string.

During CSV data parsing, the following logic of datatype selection is used:

  • Bool, if true or false;
  • Int, if the POSIX ERE [0-9]+ fully matches;
  • Double, if the POSIX ERE [0-9]+\.[0-9]+(e[0-9]+)? fully matches;
  • String, if none of the above matches.

Joins

Join means, that you put multiple input files into the from block.

Joins always have the time complexity O(nm). There is no optimization made based on if conditions when you put multiple files into the from block.

Documentation of language

lsql-csv [OPTIONS] COMMAND

Description of the grammar:

  COMMAND -> FROM_BLOCK, REST


  REST -> SELECT_BLOCK, REST
  REST -> BY_BLOCK, REST
  REST -> SORT_BLOCK, REST
  REST -> IF_BLOCK, REST
  REST -> LAST_BLOCK
    
  LAST_BLOCK -> SELECT_BLOCK   
  LAST_BLOCK -> BY_BLOCK
  LAST_BLOCK -> SORT_BLOCK
  LAST_BLOCK -> IF_BLOCK


  FROM_BLOCK -> FROM_EXPR

  FROM_EXPR -> FROM_SELECTOR FROM_EXPR
  FROM_EXPR -> FROM_SELECTOR

  // Wildcard and brace expansion
  FROM_SELECTOR ~~> FROM ... FROM 


  // Standard input
  FROM -> ASSIGN_NAME=- OPTIONS
  FROM -> - OPTIONS

  FROM -> ASSIGN_NAME=FILE_PATH OPTIONS
  FROM -> FILE_PATH OPTIONS


  OPTIONS -> -dCHAR OPTIONS
  OPTIONS -> --delimiter=CHAR OPTIONS

  OPTIONS -> -sCHAR OPTIONS
  OPTIONS -> --secondary-delimiter=CHAR OPTIONS

  OPTIONS -> -n OPTIONS
  OPTIONS -> --named OPTIONS

  OPTIONS -> -N OPTIONS
  OPTIONS -> --not-named OPTIONS

  OPTIONS ->

  
  SELECT_BLOCK -> SELECT_EXPR
  BY_BLOCK -> by SELECT_EXPR
  SORT_BLOCK -> sort SELECT_EXPR
  IF_BLOCK -> if ARITHMETIC_EXPR


  ARITHMETIC_EXPR -> ATOM

  ARITHMETIC_EXPR -> ARITHMETIC_EXPR OPERATOR ARITHMETIC_EXPR
  ARITHMETIC_EXPR -> (ARITHMETIC_EXPR)

  // Logical negation
  ARITHMETIC_EXPR -> ! ARITHMETIC_EXPR
  // Number negation
  ARITHMETIC_EXPR -> - ARITHMETIC_EXPR
  

  SELECT_EXPR -> ATOM_SELECTOR SELECT_EXPR
  SELECT_EXPR -> ATOM_SELECTOR
  
  // Wildcard and brace expansion
  ATOM_SELECTOR ~~> ATOM ... ATOM 
  

  ATOM -> pi
  ATOM -> e
  ATOM -> true
  ATOM -> false

  // e.g. 1.0, "text", 'text', 1
  ATOM -> CONSTANT
  // e.g. &1.1
  ATOM -> SYMBOL_NAME

  ATOM -> $(ARITHMETIC_EXPR)
  ATOM -> AGGREGATE_FUNCTION(SELECT_EXPR)
  ATOM -> ONEARG_FUNCTION(ARITHMETIC_EXPR)


  // # is not a char:       
  // Two atoms can be written without whitespace   
  // and their values will be String appended    
  // if the right atom begins with a char, 
  // which can't be a part of the left atom.     
  //
  // E.g. if the left atom is a number constant, 
  // and the right atom is a String constant 
  // beginning with a quote char,
  // the left atom value will be converted to the String 
  // and prepended to the right atom value.
  //
  // This rule doesn't apply inside ARITHMETIC_EXPR 
  ATOM ~~> ATOM#ATOM     

  
  // Converts all values to the String type and appends them.
  AGGREGATE_FUNCTION -> cat

  // Returns the number of values.
  AGGREGATE_FUNCTION -> count

  AGGREGATE_FUNCTION -> min
  AGGREGATE_FUNCTION -> max
  AGGREGATE_FUNCTION -> sum
  AGGREGATE_FUNCTION -> avg
  

  // All trigonometric functions are in radians.
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> sin
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> cos
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> tan
  
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> asin
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> acos
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> atan
  
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> sinh
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> cosh
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> tanh
  
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> asinh
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> acosh
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> atanh
  
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> exp
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> sqrt
  
  // Converts a value to the String type and returns its length.
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> size

  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> to_string
  
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> negate
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> abs
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> signum
  
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> truncate
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> ceiling
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> floor
  
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> even
  ONEARG_FUNCTION -> odd

  
  // A in B means A is a substring of B.
  OPERATOR -> in
  
  OPERATOR -> *
  OPERATOR -> /

  // General power
  OPERATOR -> **    
  // Natural power
  OPERATOR -> ^     
  
  // Integer division truncated towards minus infinity
  // (x div y)*y + (x mod y) == x
  OPERATOR -> div
  OPERATOR -> mod
  
  // Integer division truncated towards 0
  // (x quot y)*y + (x rem y) == x  
  OPERATOR -> quot
  OPERATOR -> rem

  // Greatest common divisor
  OPERATOR -> gcd
  // Least common multiple
  OPERATOR -> lcm
  
  // String append
  OPERATOR -> ++    
  
  OPERATOR -> +
  OPERATOR -> -
  
  OPERATOR -> <=
  OPERATOR -> >=
  OPERATOR -> <
  OPERATOR -> >
  OPERATOR -> !=
  OPERATOR -> ==
  
  OPERATOR -> ||
  OPERATOR -> &&

Each command is made from blocks separated by a comma. There are these types of blocks.

  • From block
  • Select block
  • If block
  • By block
  • Sort block

The first block is always the from block. If the block after the first block is without a specifier (if, by, or sort), then it is the select block. Otherwise, it is a block specified by the specifier.

The from block accepts a specific grammar (as specified in the grammar description), the select, the by, and the sort block accept the select expression (SELECT_EXPR in the grammar), and the if block accepts the arithmetic expression (ARITHMETIC_EXPR in the grammar).

Every source data file has a reference number based on its position in the from block and may have multiple names - the assign name, the name given to the source data file by ASSIGN_NAME=FILE_PATH syntax in the from block, and the default name, which is given by the path to the file or - in the case of the standard input in the from block.

Each column of a source data file has a reference number based on its position in it and may have a name (if the named option is enabled for the given source file).

If a source data file with the reference number M (numbering input files from 1) has a name XXX, its columns can be addressed by &M.N or XXX.N, where N is the reference number of a column (numbering columns from 1). If the named option is enabled for the input file and a column has the name NAME, it can also be addressed by &M.NAME or XXX.NAME.

We call the address a symbol name - SYMBOL_NAME in the grammar description.

If there is a collision in naming (some symbol name addresses more than one column), then the behavior is undefined.

Exotic chars

Some chars cannot be in unquoted symbol names - exotic chars. For simplicity, we can suppose, they are all non-alphanumerical chars excluding -, ., &, and _. Also the first char of a symbol name must be non-numerical and must not be - or . to not be considered as an exotic char.

It is possible to use a symbol name with exotic chars using ` quote - like `EXOTIC SYMBOL NAME`.

Quote chars

There are 3 quote chars (`, " and ') used in LSQL. " and ' are always quoting a String. The ` quote char is used for quoting symbol names.

These chars can be used for String appending. If two atoms inside SELECT_EXPR are written consecutively without whitespace and the left atom ends by a quote char or the right begins by a quote char, they will be converted to the String and will be String appended. For example, &1.1"abc" means: convert the value of &1.1 to the String and append it to the String constant abc.

Constants

Constants are in the grammar description as CONSTANT. In the following section, we speak only about these constants and not about built-in constant values like pi or true.

There are 3 datatypes of constants. String, Double, and Int. Every string quoted in " chars or ' chars in an LSQL command is always tokenized as a String constant. Numbers fully matching the POSIX ERE [0-9]+ are considered Int constants and numbers fully matching the POSIX ERE [0-9]+\.[0-9]+ Double constants.

Operator associativity and precedence

All operators are right-to-left associative.

The following list outlines the precedence of the lsql-csv infix operators. The lower the precedence number, the higher the priority.

  • 1: in, **, ^
  • 2: *, /, div, quot, rem, mod, gcd, lcm
  • 3: ++, +, -
  • 4: <=, >=, <, >, !=, ==
  • 5: ||, &&

Select expression

Select expressions are in the grammar description as SELECT_EXPR. They are similar to the bash expressions. They are made by atom selector expressions (ATOM_SELECTOR) separated by whitespaces. These expressions are wildcard and brace expanded to atoms (ATOM) and are further processed as they were separated by whitespace. (In bash brace expansion is a mechanism by which arbitrary strings are generated. For example, a{b,c,d}e is expanded to abe ace ade, see the bash reference manual for details.)

Wildcards and brace expansion expressions are only evaluated and expanded in unquoted parts of the atom selector expression, which aren’t part of an inner arithmetic expression.

For example, if we have an LSQL command with symbol names &1.1 and &1.2, then

  • the atom selector expression &1.{1,2} will be expanded to &1.1 and &1.2;
  • the atom selector expression &1.* will be expanded to &1.1 and &1.2;
  • the atom selector expression `&1.*` will be expanded to `&1.*`;
  • the atom selector expression "&1.*" will be expanded to "&1.*";
  • the atom selector expression $(&?.1) will be expanded to $(&?.1);
  • the atom selector expression &*$(&1.1) will be expanded to &1.1$(&1.1) and &1.2$(&1.1).

Every atom selector expression can consist:

  • A wildcard (Each wildcard is expanded against the symbol name list. If no symbol name matching the wildcard is found, the wildcard is expanded to itself.);
  • A bash brace expansion expression (e.g. {22..25} -> 22 23 24 25);
  • An arithmetic expression in $(expr) format;
  • A call of an aggregate function AGGREGATE_FUNCTION(SELECT_EXPR) - there cannot be any space after FUNCTION;
  • A call of a one-argument function ONEARG_FUNCTION(ARITHMETIC_EXPR) — there cannot be any space after FUNCTION;
  • A constant;
  • A symbol name;
  • A built-in constant value;
  • A reference to a column name.

If you want to concatenate strings without ++ operator, you can write: a.1","a.2.

Please, keep in mind, that operators must be put inside arithmetic expressions, or they will be matched to a column name or aggregate function.

Arithmetic expression

Arithmetic expressions are in the grammar description as ARITHMETIC_EXPR.

The expressions use mainly the classical awk style of expressions. You can use here operators OPERATOR keywords >, <, <=, >=, ==, ||, &&, +, -, *, /...

Wildcards and brace expansion expressions are not evaluated inside the arithmetic expression.

Select blocks

Select blocks are referred in the grammar description as SELECT_BLOCK. These blocks determine the output. They accept the select expression.

There must be at least one select block in an LSQL command, which refers to at least one symbol name, or the behavior is undefined.

Examples of select blocks:

&1.[3-6]

This will print the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th columns from the first file if the first file has at least 6 columns.

ax*.{6..4}

This will print the 6th, the 5th, and the 4th columns from all files whose name begins with ax if the files have at least 6 columns.

From blocks

These blocks are in the grammar description as FROM_BLOCK. There must be exactly one from block at the beginning of an LSQL command.

The from block contains input file paths (or - in the case of the standard input), and optionally their assign name ASSIGN_NAME.

You can use the wildcards and the curly bracket expansion as you were in the bash to refer input files. If there is a wildcard with an assign name NAME matching more than one input file, the input files will be given assign names NAME, NAME1, NAME2... If there is a wildcard, that matches to no file, it is expanded to itself.

If FILE_PATH is put inside ` quotes, no wildcard or expansion logic applies to it.

You can also add custom attributes to input files in the format FILE_PATH -aX --attribute=X -b. The attributes will be applied to all files which will be matched against FILE_PATH. The custom attributes are referred to as OPTIONS in the grammar description.

Examples:

/etc/{passwd,group}

This will select /etc/passwd and /etc/group files. They can be addressed either as &1 or /etc/passwd, and &2 or /etc/group.

passwd=/etc/passwd

This will select /etc/passwd and set its assign name to passwd. It can be addressed as &1, passwd, or /etc/passwd.

Possible attributes
-n
--named

Enables the first-line naming convention for an input CSV file. With this option, the first line of a CSV file will be interpreted as a list of column names.

-N
--not-named

You can also set the exact opposite to an input file. This can be useful if you change the default behavior.

-dCHAR
--delimiter=CHAR

This changes the primary delimiter of an input file.

-sCHAR
--secondary-delimiter=CHAR

This changes the secondary delimiter of an input file.

Example:

/etc/passwd -d:

This will select /etc/passwd and set its delimiter to :.

Currently, commas and CHARs, which are also quotes in LSQL, are not supported as a delimiter or a secondary delimiter in FILE_PATH custom attributes.

If blocks

These blocks are in the grammar description as IF_BLOCK. They always begin with the if keyword.
They accept arithmetic expressions, which should be convertible to Bool: either String false/true, Int 0 false, anything else true), or Bool.

Rows with the arithmetic expression converted to Bool true are printed or aggregated, and rows with the arithmetic expression converted to Bool false are skipped.

Filtering is done before the aggregation.

You can imagine the if block as the WHERE clause in SQL.

By blocks

By blocks are referred in the grammar description as BY_BLOCK. These blocks always begin with the by keyword. They accept the select expression.

There can be only one by block in a whole LSQL command.

The by block is used to group the resulting set by the given atoms for the evaluation by an aggregate function. The by block is similar to the GROUP BY clause in SQL.

There must be at least one aggregate function in the select block if the by block is present. Otherwise, the behavior is undefined.

If there is an aggregate function present without the by block present in an LSQL command, the aggregate function runs over all rows at once.

Sort blocks

These blocks are in the grammar description as SORT_BLOCK. It begins with the sort keyword. They accept the select expression.

The sort block determines the order of the final output - given atoms are sorted in ascending order. If there is more than one atom in the sort block (A, B, C...), the data is first sorted by A and in the case of ties, the atoms (B, C...) are used to further refine the order of the final output.

You can imagine the sort block as the ORDER BY clause in SQL.

There can be only one sort block in the whole command.