type-safe-avl: Type safe BST and AVL trees

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Several implementations of binary search trees (BST) and balanced binary search trees (AVL). Verify at compile time if the operations over BST/AVL trees preserves the order of the keys and the balance in the heights. For both of them there's one unsafe implementation and three type-safe implementations. The last ones differ one how the structural invariants are handled at the type level.


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Versions [RSS] 1.0.0.0, 1.0.0.1
Change log CHANGELOG.md
Dependencies base (>=4.15.0.0 && <4.16) [details]
License GPL-3.0-only
Author Nicolás Rodríguez <marco.nicolas.rodriguez@protonmail.com>
Maintainer Nicolás Rodríguez <marco.nicolas.rodriguez@protonmail.com>
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Home page https://github.com/nico-rodriguez/type-safe-avl
Bug tracker https://github.com/nico-rodriguez/type-safe-avl/issues
Source repo head: git clone https://github.com/nico-rodriguez/type-safe-avl
Uploaded by nico at 2022-05-31T02:19:43Z
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Readme for type-safe-avl-1.0.0.1

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Type-safe BST and AVL trees

Several implementations of binary search trees (BST) and balanced binary search trees (AVL). Verify at compile time if the operations over BST/AVL trees preserves the order of the keys and the balance in the heights. For both of them there's one unsafe implementation and three type-safe implementations. The last ones differ one how the structural invariants are handled at the type level.

Summary

Prerequisites

ghc (>= 8.10.2)     # GHC Haskell compiler
cabal (>=3.0.0.0)   # Haskell package manager
python3 (>=3.6.8)   # Python interpreter (only needed for running the benchmarks)
Some python package manager (e.g., pip)

No external Haskell libraries are needed.

Installing

If you only want to use the library (without benchmarks), the easiest way to install it is through Hackage. The following command will download the library and install it:

cabal install --lib type-safe-avl

If you also want to see or run the benchmarks, clone the repository:

git clone https://github.com/nico-rodriguez/type-safe-avl.git

The project may be used locally (inside the folder with cabal repl) or it may be install for system wide use:

cd type-safe-avl
cabal install --lib

For usage examples see the Examples section.

Project Structure

type-safe-avl
│   README.md
└───benchmark
|    │
│    └── ...
└───src/Data/Tree
    │   ITree.hs
    │   Node.hs
    └───AVL
    │   │   FullExtern.hs
    │   │   Extern.hs
    │   │   Intern.hs
    │   │   Unsafe.hs
    │   │   Invariants.hs
    │   └───FullExtern
    │   │   │   Examples.hs
    │   └───Extern
    │   │   │   Constructor.hs
    │   │   │   Balance.hs, BalanceProofs.hs
    │   │   │   Insert.hs, InsertProofs.hs
    │   │   │   Lookup.hs
    │   │   │   Delete.hs, DeleteProofs.hs
    │   │   │   Examples.hs
    │   └───Intern
    │   │   │   Constructor.hs
    │   │   │   Balance.hs
    │   │   │   Insert.hs
    │   │   │   Lookup.hs
    │   │   │   Delete.hs
    │   │   │   Examples.hs
    │   └───Unsafe
    │       │   Examples.hs
    └───BST
        │
        └── ...
  • For details on the benchmark directory, see the Benchmark section.

  • ITree.hs implements the Tree and ITree data types.

  • Node.hs implements the nodes of the trees.

  • Both ITree.hs and Node.hs are used in both BST and AVL type-safe trees.

  • The structure of Data/Tree/AVL/ and Data/Tree/BST/ is similar.

  • Data/Tree/{BST,AVL}/Invariants.hs implements the BST/AVL invariants.

  • Data/Tree/{BST,AVL}/Unsafe.hs contains an unsafe implementation of BST/AVL trees. The code was extracted and refactored from Data/Tree/AVL/Extern/{Balance,Insert,Lookup,Delete}.hs, 'un-lifting' the type level computations to the value level and removing all proof functions and terms.

  • Data/Tree/{BST,AVL}/FullExtern.hs contains the implementation of the full externalist approach. It provides functionality for performing several operations in a row over trees and checking the invariants at the end.

  • Data/Tree/{BST,AVL}/Extern/ contains the implementation of BST/AVL trees and its operations for the externalist approach; likewise, Data/Tree/{BST,AVL}/Intern/ folder contains the implementation for the internalist approach. Notice that there are no *Proofs.hs source files inside Data/Tree/{BST,AVL}/Intern/. That's because the proofs and operations in the internalist approach are implemented together.

  • All four approaches, Data/Tree/{BST,AVL}/{Unsafe,FullExtern,Extern,Intern}/, have an Examples.hs with usage examples of the BST/AVL operations.

  • In order to use BST/AVL trees, only one of Data/Tree/{BST,AVL}/{Unsafe,FullExtern,Extern,Intern}.hs need to be imported. They all export the basic functionality for inserting, looking and deleting on the corresponding BST/AVL tree. See the Interface section for exploring the functions exported by each of them.

Interface

Both externalist and internalist approaches have a common interface for manipulating BST/AVL trees. The difference in their implementation is the approach taken when defining the structural invariants that represent the conditions for a tree to be BST/AVL.

The interface for the unsafe and the full externalist approaches are only slightly different.

AVL trees (some function constraints omitted)

For the unsafe approach, the interface is

  • emptyAVL :: AVL a, an empty ITree.

  • insertAVL :: Show a => Int -> a -> AVL a -> AVL a, inserts a node in a ITree. If the tree already has a node with the given key, the value is updated.

  • lookupAVL :: Int -> AVL a -> Maybe a, returns the value stored in the node with the given key. Returns Nothing if the key is not found.

  • deleteAVL :: Int -> AVL a -> AVL a, delete a node with a given key. If the tree doesn't have a node with that key, it just returns the original tree.

For the full externalist approach, the interface is:

  • EmptyITree :: ITree 'EmptyTree, an empty ITree.

  • insert :: Node x a -> ITree t -> ITree (Insert x a t), inserts a node in a ITree. If the tree already has a node with key x, the value is updated.

  • lookup :: (t ~ 'ForkTree l (Node n a1) r, Member x t ~ 'True) => Proxy x -> ITree t -> a, lookup a key in a ITree. The constraint t ~ 'ForkTree l (Node n a1) r checks at compile time if the tree is not empty; the constraint Member x t ~ 'True checks at compile time that the tree t has a node with key x (ensuring that the lookup will return some value).

  • delete :: Proxy x -> ITree t -> (Delete x t), delete a node with a given key in a ITree. If the tree doesn't have a node with key x, it just returns the original tree.

  • AVL :: ITree t -> IsBSTT t -> IsBalancedT t -> AVL t, constructor for type-safe AVL trees.

  • mkAVL :: (IsBSTC t, IsBalancedC t) => ITree t -> AVL t, constructor for type-safe AVL from an ITree, with automatic proof term construction.

For the externalist and internalist approaches, the interface is the same and is as follows:

  • emptyAVL :: AVL 'EmptyTree, an empty AVL tree.

  • insertAVL :: Proxy x -> a -> AVL t -> AVL (Insert x a t), inserts a value of type a with key x in an AVL of type AVL t. If the tree already has a node with key x, the value is updated.

  • lookupAVL :: (t ~ 'ForkTree l (Node n a1) r, Member x t ~ 'True) => Proxy x -> AVL t -> a, returns the value, of type a, that is associated to the key x in the AVL tree of type AVL t. The constraint t ~ 'ForkTree l (Node n a1) r checks at compile time if the tree is not empty; the constraint Member x t ~ 'True checks at compile time that the tree t has a node with key x (ensuring that the lookup will return some value).

  • deleteAVL :: Proxy x -> AVL t -> AVL (Delete x t), deletes the node with key x in an AVL of type AVL t. If the tree doesn't have a node with key x, it just returns the original tree.

BST trees

The interfaces are analogous to those for AVL trees. Just replace "AVL" for "BST" in the functions and modules names.

Examples

For more usage examples see the Examples.hs file for each approach.

Unsafe

import           Data.Tree.AVL.Unsafe (deleteAVL, emptyAVL, insertAVL,
                                       lookupAVL)
import           Prelude              (Int, Float, Bool(True,False))


-- | Test Balanced Binary Tree
avle = emptyAVL
avlt1 = insertAVL 20 'f' avle
avlt2 = insertAVL 60 'o' avlt1
avlt3 = insertAVL 30 'l' avlt2

-- | Just 'l'
l1 = lookupAVL 30 avlt3

-- | Nothing: key 10 is not in the tree avlt8
n = lookupAVL 10 avlt3

avlt4 = deleteAVL 20 avlt3
avlt5 = deleteAVL 60 avlt3
-- | There's no error. Just return the same tree
avlt6 = deleteAVL 40 avlt3

Full Extern

A full externalist approach means grouping the operations over ITree, only constructing the BST/AVL and verifying the invariants at the end:

{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds          #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeFamilies       #-}

import           Data.Proxy               (Proxy (Proxy))
import           Data.Tree.AVL.FullExtern (AVL (AVL), mkAVL, ITree (EmptyITree),
                                           delete, insert, lookup)
import           Data.Tree.ITree          (ITree(EmptyITree,ForkITree))
import           Data.Tree.Node           (mkNode)
import           Prelude                  (Bool (False, True), Float, Int, ($))


-- | Proxies for the node keys
p0 = Proxy :: Proxy 0
p1 = Proxy :: Proxy 1
p2 = Proxy :: Proxy 2
p3 = Proxy :: Proxy 3
p4 = Proxy :: Proxy 4
p5 = Proxy :: Proxy 5
p6 = Proxy :: Proxy 6
p7 = Proxy :: Proxy 7

-- | Insert several values in a row and check the BST and AVL invariants at the end
avl = mkAVL t
  where
    t = insert (mkNode p4 'f') $ insert (mkNode p2 (4::Int)) $
        insert (mkNode p6 "lala") $ insert (mkNode p3 True) $
        insert (mkNode p5 ([1,2,3]::[Int])) $ insert (mkNode p0 (1.8::Float)) $
        insert (mkNode p7 [False]) EmptyITree

-- | For performing a lookup, it's necessary to take the ITree 't' out of the AVL constructor
l1' = case avl of
    AVL t _ _ -> lookup (Proxy::Proxy 3) t

-- | Compile time error: key 1 is not in the tree avl and left subtree at node with key 4 has height +2 greater than the right subtree
-- avlError = mkAVL $
--   ForkITree (ForkITree
--             (ForkITree
--               EmptyITree (mkNode p0 'a') EmptyITree)
--               (mkNode p7 4)
--               EmptyITree)
--             (mkNode p4 'f')
--             EmptyITree

-- | Delete several values in a row and check the BST and AVL invariants at the end
avlt2 = case avl of
  AVL t _ _ -> mkAVL t'
    where
      t' =  delete p7 $ delete p4 $ delete p1 $ delete p0 $
            delete p2 $ delete p6 $ delete p5 $ delete p3 t

Extern and Intern

In the externalist and internalist approaches, the invariants are checked after every operation performed over the tree.

Some examples for the externalist approach:

{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds          #-}

import           Data.Proxy           (Proxy (Proxy))
import           Data.Tree.AVL.Extern (deleteAVL, emptyAVL, insertAVL,
                                       lookupAVL)
import           Prelude              (Bool (False, True), Float, Int, String)


-- | Proxies for the node keys
p2 = Proxy :: Proxy 2
p4 = Proxy :: Proxy 4
p7 = Proxy :: Proxy 7


-- Insert value 'f' with key 4
avlt1 = insertAVL p4 'f' emptyAVL
-- Insert value [1,2] with key 2
avlt2 = insertAVL p2 [1,2] avlt1

-- list = [1,2]
list = lookupAVL p2 avlt2

-- | Error: key 7 is not in the tree avlt2
-- err = lookupAVL p7 avlt2

-- Delete node with key 4
avlt3 = deleteAVL p4 avlt2
-- Delete node with key 2. Returns the empty AVL
avlt4 = deleteAVL p2 avlt3

For using the internalist approach, the code example for the externalist approach works with the only difference in the import list:

import Data.Tree.AVL.Intern (emptyAVL,insertAVL,lookupAVL,deleteAVL)
-- Instead of import Data.Tree.AVL.Extern (emptyAVL,insertAVL,lookupAVL,deleteAVL)

Examples: BST trees

The previous examples used AVL trees. For using AVL trees just replace the imported modules along with the functions:

mkAVL     -> mkBST
emptyAVL  -> emptyBST
insertAVL -> insertBST
lookupAVL -> lookupBST
deleteAVL -> deleteBST

Notice that operations for BST may only be applied to BST trees, and operations for AVL trees may only be applied for AVL trees. For instance, this is not possible if bst2 is not an AVL tree:

deleteAVL (Proxy::Proxy 5) bst2

It gives an error at compile time.

Benchmark

Structure

type-safe-avl
│   README.md
└───benchmark
     └───AVL
     │   └───FullExtern
     |   |   |   Benchmark.hs
     │   │   │
     |   |   └───Insert
     │   │   │
     |   |   └───Lookup
     │   │   │
     |   |   └───Delete
     │   └───Extern
     │   │   └── ...
     │   └───Intern
     │   │   └── ...
     │   └───Unsafe
     │       └── ...
     └───BST
     │
     └── ...

There are benchmarks for both BST and AVL trees for each approach (clone the repository for viewing or using the benchmarks). For instance, in the folder benchmark/AVL/FullExtern/ there are three folders and one source file: Insert/, Lookup/, Delete/ and Benchmark.hs.

Inside each folder there are different source files for benchmarking each operation under several tree sizes; they're split in different files in order to be able to measure not only the running times but also the compile times.

The source files Benchmark.hs performs all of the running time benchmarks defined inside the folders Insert/, Lookup/ and Delete/.

Running the benchmark

Given the compilation effort for running the benchmarks, the Hackage package comes without them.

In order to run the benchmarks, you should clone the repository and switch to benchmark branch.

For running all the benchmarks, use benchmark/avg-bench.py script. There's a requirements.txt file with all the python dependencies needed to run the script.

If you're using pip, just run pip install -r requirements.txt.