resourcet-1.1.5: Deterministic allocation and freeing of scarce resources.

Safe HaskellNone




Allocate resources which are guaranteed to be released.

For more information, see

One point to note: all register cleanup actions live in the IO monad, not the main monad. This allows both more efficient code, and for monads to be transformed.


Data types

data ResourceT m a Source

The Resource transformer. This transformer keeps track of all registered actions, and calls them upon exit (via runResourceT). Actions may be registered via register, or resources may be allocated atomically via allocate. allocate corresponds closely to bracket.

Releasing may be performed before exit via the release function. This is a highly recommended optimization, as it will ensure that scarce resources are freed early. Note that calling release will deregister the action, so that a release action will only ever be called once.

Since 0.3.0

type ResIO a = ResourceT IO a Source

Convenient alias for ResourceT IO.

data ReleaseKey Source

A lookup key for a specific release action. This value is returned by register and allocate, and is passed to release.

Since 0.3.0



runResourceT :: MonadBaseControl IO m => ResourceT m a -> m a Source

Unwrap a ResourceT transformer, and call all registered release actions.

Note that there is some reference counting involved due to resourceForkIO. If multiple threads are sharing the same collection of resources, only the last call to runResourceT will deallocate the resources.

Since 0.3.0

Special actions

resourceForkIO :: MonadBaseControl IO m => ResourceT m () -> ResourceT m ThreadId Source

Introduce a reference-counting scheme to allow a resource context to be shared by multiple threads. Once the last thread exits, all remaining resources will be released.

Note that abuse of this function will greatly delay the deallocation of registered resources. This function should be used with care. A general guideline:

If you are allocating a resource that should be shared by multiple threads, and will be held for a long time, you should allocate it at the beginning of a new ResourceT block and then call resourceForkIO from there.

Since 0.3.0

Monad transformation

transResourceT :: (m a -> n b) -> ResourceT m a -> ResourceT n b Source

Transform the monad a ResourceT lives in. This is most often used to strip or add new transformers to a stack, e.g. to run a ReaderT.

Note that this function is a slight generalization of hoist.

Since 0.3.0

joinResourceT :: ResourceT (ResourceT m) a -> ResourceT m a Source

This function mirrors join at the transformer level: it will collapse two levels of ResourceT into a single ResourceT.

Since 0.4.6


allocate Source


:: MonadResource m 
=> IO a


-> (a -> IO ())

free resource

-> m (ReleaseKey, a) 

Perform some allocation, and automatically register a cleanup action.

This is almost identical to calling the allocation and then registering the release action, but this properly handles masking of asynchronous exceptions.

Since 0.3.0

register :: MonadResource m => IO () -> m ReleaseKey Source

Register some action that will be called precisely once, either when runResourceT is called, or when the ReleaseKey is passed to release.

Since 0.3.0

release :: MonadIO m => ReleaseKey -> m () Source

Call a release action early, and deregister it from the list of cleanup actions to be performed.

Since 0.3.0

unprotect :: MonadIO m => ReleaseKey -> m (Maybe (IO ())) Source

Unprotect resource from cleanup actions, this allowes you to send resource into another resourcet process and reregister it there. It returns an release action that should be run in order to clean resource or Nothing in case if resource is already freed.

Since 0.4.5

resourceMask :: MonadResource m => ((forall a. ResourceT IO a -> ResourceT IO a) -> ResourceT IO b) -> m b Source

Perform asynchronous exception masking.

This is more general then Control.Exception.mask, yet more efficient than Control.Exception.Lifted.mask.

Since 0.3.0

Type class/associated types

class (MonadThrow m, MonadIO m, Applicative m, MonadBase IO m) => MonadResource m where Source

A Monad which allows for safe resource allocation. In theory, any monad transformer stack included a ResourceT can be an instance of MonadResource.

Note: runResourceT has a requirement for a MonadBaseControl IO m monad, which allows control operations to be lifted. A MonadResource does not have this requirement. This means that transformers such as ContT can be an instance of MonadResource. However, the ContT wrapper will need to be unwrapped before calling runResourceT.

Since 0.3.0


liftResourceT :: ResourceT IO a -> m a Source

Lift a ResourceT IO action into the current Monad.

Since 0.4.0

type MonadResourceBase m = (MonadBaseControl IO m, MonadThrow m, MonadBase IO m, MonadIO m, Applicative m) Source

A Monad which can be used as a base for a ResourceT.

A ResourceT has some restrictions on its base monad:

  • runResourceT requires an instance of MonadBaseControl IO.
  • MonadResource requires an instance of MonadThrow, MonadIO, and Applicative.

While any instance of MonadBaseControl IO should be an instance of the other classes, this is not guaranteed by the type system (e.g., you may have a transformer in your stack with does not implement MonadThrow). Ideally, we would like to simply create an alias for the five type classes listed, but this is not possible with GHC currently.

Instead, this typeclass acts as a proxy for the other five. Its only purpose is to make your type signatures shorter.

Note that earlier versions of conduit had a typeclass ResourceIO. This fulfills much the same role.

Since 0.3.2


data InvalidAccess Source

Indicates either an error in the library, or misuse of it (e.g., a ResourceT's state is accessed after being released).

Since 0.3.0




functionName :: String


Internal state

A ResourceT internally is a modified ReaderT monad transformer holding onto a mutable reference to all of the release actions still remaining to be performed. If you are building up a custom application monad, it may be more efficient to embed this ReaderT functionality directly in your own monad instead of wrapping around ResourceT itself. This section provides you the means of doing so.

type InternalState = IORef ReleaseMap Source

The internal state held by a ResourceT transformer.

Since 0.4.6

getInternalState :: Monad m => ResourceT m InternalState Source

Get the internal state of the current ResourceT.

Since 0.4.6

runInternalState :: ResourceT m a -> InternalState -> m a Source

Unwrap a ResourceT using the given InternalState.

Since 0.4.6

withInternalState :: (InternalState -> m a) -> ResourceT m a Source

Run an action in the underlying monad, providing it the InternalState.

Since 0.4.6

createInternalState :: MonadBase IO m => m InternalState Source

Create a new internal state. This state must be closed with closeInternalState. It is your responsibility to ensure exception safety. Caveat emptor!

Since 0.4.9

closeInternalState :: MonadBase IO m => InternalState -> m () Source

Close an internal state created by createInternalState.

Since 0.4.9

Backwards compatibility

type ExceptionT = CatchT Source

For backwards compatibility.

runExceptionT :: ExceptionT m a -> m (Either SomeException a) Source

For backwards compatibility.

runExceptionT_ :: Monad m => ExceptionT m a -> m a Source

Same as runExceptionT, but immediately throw any exception returned.

Since 0.3.0

runException :: ExceptionT Identity a -> Either SomeException a Source

Run an ExceptionT Identity stack.

Since 0.4.2

runException_ :: ExceptionT Identity a -> a Source

Run an ExceptionT Identity stack, but immediately throw any exception returned.

Since 0.4.2

class Monad m => MonadThrow m where

A class for monads in which exceptions may be thrown.

Instances should obey the following law:

throwM e >> x = throwM e

In other words, throwing an exception short-circuits the rest of the monadic computation.


throwM :: Exception e => e -> m a

Throw an exception. Note that this throws when this action is run in the monad m, not when it is applied. It is a generalization of Control.Exception's throwIO.

Should satisfy the law:

throwM e >> f = throwM e


MonadThrow [] 
MonadThrow IO 
MonadThrow STM 
MonadThrow Maybe 
(~) * e SomeException => MonadThrow (Either e) 
Monad m => MonadThrow (CatchT m) 
MonadThrow m => MonadThrow (ListT m) 
MonadThrow m => MonadThrow (MaybeT m)

Throws exceptions into the base monad.

MonadThrow m => MonadThrow (IdentityT m) 
MonadThrow m => MonadThrow (ResourceT m) 
MonadThrow m => MonadThrow (ContT r m) 
MonadThrow m => MonadThrow (ReaderT r m) 
MonadThrow m => MonadThrow (StateT s m) 
MonadThrow m => MonadThrow (StateT s m) 
MonadThrow m => MonadThrow (ExceptT e m)

Throws exceptions into the base monad.

(Error e, MonadThrow m) => MonadThrow (ErrorT e m)

Throws exceptions into the base monad.

(MonadThrow m, Monoid w) => MonadThrow (WriterT w m) 
(MonadThrow m, Monoid w) => MonadThrow (WriterT w m) 
(MonadThrow m, Monoid w) => MonadThrow (RWST r w s m) 
(MonadThrow m, Monoid w) => MonadThrow (RWST r w s m) 

monadThrow :: (Exception e, MonadThrow m) => e -> m a Source

Backwards compatibility