haskeline- A command-line interface for user input, written in Haskell.

Safe HaskellNone




This module redefines some of the functions in Control.Exception to work for more general monads built on top of IO.


The MonadException class

class MonadIO m => MonadException m whereSource

An instance of MonadException is generally made up of monad transformers layered on top of the IO monad.

The controlIO method enables us to "lift" a function that manages IO actions (such as bracket or catch) into a function that wraps arbitrary monadic actions.


controlIO :: (RunIO m -> IO (m a)) -> m aSource

Generalizations of Control.Exception

catch :: (MonadException m, Exception e) => m a -> (e -> m a) -> m aSource

handle :: (MonadException m, Exception e) => (e -> m a) -> m a -> m aSource

catches :: MonadException m => m a -> [Handler m a] -> m aSource

data Handler m a Source


forall e . Exception e => Handler (e -> m a) 

finally :: MonadException m => m a -> m b -> m aSource

throwIO :: (MonadIO m, Exception e) => e -> m aSource

throwTo :: (MonadIO m, Exception e) => ThreadId -> e -> m ()Source

bracket :: MonadException m => m a -> (a -> m b) -> (a -> m c) -> m cSource

Helpers for defining "wrapper" functions

liftIOOp :: MonadException m => ((a -> IO (m b)) -> IO (m c)) -> (a -> m b) -> m cSource

Lift a IO operation

 wrap :: (a -> IO b) -> IO b

to a more general monadic operation

 liftIOOp wrap :: MonadException m => (a -> m b) -> m b

For example:

  liftIOOp (withFile f m) :: MonadException m => (Handle -> m r) -> m r
  liftIOOp alloca :: (MonadException m, Storable a) => (Ptr a -> m b) -> m b
  liftIOOp (withForeignPtr fp) :: MonadException m => (Ptr a -> m b) -> m b

liftIOOp_ :: MonadException m => (IO (m a) -> IO (m a)) -> m a -> m aSource

Lift an IO operation

 wrap :: IO a -> IO a

to a more general monadic operation

 liftIOOp_ wrap :: MonadException m => m a -> m a

Internal implementation

newtype RunIO m Source

A RunIO function takes a monadic action m as input, and outputs an IO action which performs the underlying impure part of m and returns the ''pure'' part of m.

Note that (RunIO return) is an incorrect implementation, since it does not separate the pure and impure parts of the monadic action. This module defines implementations for several common monad transformers.


RunIO (forall b. m b -> IO (m b)) 

Extensible Exceptions

class (Typeable e, Show e) => Exception e

Any type that you wish to throw or catch as an exception must be an instance of the Exception class. The simplest case is a new exception type directly below the root:

 data MyException = ThisException | ThatException
     deriving (Show, Typeable)

 instance Exception MyException

The default method definitions in the Exception class do what we need in this case. You can now throw and catch ThisException and ThatException as exceptions:

*Main> throw ThisException `catch` \e -> putStrLn ("Caught " ++ show (e :: MyException))
Caught ThisException

In more complicated examples, you may wish to define a whole hierarchy of exceptions:

 -- Make the root exception type for all the exceptions in a compiler

 data SomeCompilerException = forall e . Exception e => SomeCompilerException e
     deriving Typeable

 instance Show SomeCompilerException where
     show (SomeCompilerException e) = show e

 instance Exception SomeCompilerException

 compilerExceptionToException :: Exception e => e -> SomeException
 compilerExceptionToException = toException . SomeCompilerException

 compilerExceptionFromException :: Exception e => SomeException -> Maybe e
 compilerExceptionFromException x = do
     SomeCompilerException a <- fromException x
     cast a

 -- Make a subhierarchy for exceptions in the frontend of the compiler

 data SomeFrontendException = forall e . Exception e => SomeFrontendException e
     deriving Typeable

 instance Show SomeFrontendException where
     show (SomeFrontendException e) = show e

 instance Exception SomeFrontendException where
     toException = compilerExceptionToException
     fromException = compilerExceptionFromException

 frontendExceptionToException :: Exception e => e -> SomeException
 frontendExceptionToException = toException . SomeFrontendException

 frontendExceptionFromException :: Exception e => SomeException -> Maybe e
 frontendExceptionFromException x = do
     SomeFrontendException a <- fromException x
     cast a

 -- Make an exception type for a particular frontend compiler exception

 data MismatchedParentheses = MismatchedParentheses
     deriving (Typeable, Show)

 instance Exception MismatchedParentheses where
     toException   = frontendExceptionToException
     fromException = frontendExceptionFromException

We can now catch a MismatchedParentheses exception as MismatchedParentheses, SomeFrontendException or SomeCompilerException, but not other types, e.g. IOException:

*Main> throw MismatchedParentheses catch e -> putStrLn ("Caught " ++ show (e :: MismatchedParentheses))
Caught MismatchedParentheses
*Main> throw MismatchedParentheses catch e -> putStrLn ("Caught " ++ show (e :: SomeFrontendException))
Caught MismatchedParentheses
*Main> throw MismatchedParentheses catch e -> putStrLn ("Caught " ++ show (e :: SomeCompilerException))
Caught MismatchedParentheses
*Main> throw MismatchedParentheses catch e -> putStrLn ("Caught " ++ show (e :: IOException))
*** Exception: MismatchedParentheses

data SomeException where

The SomeException type is the root of the exception type hierarchy. When an exception of type e is thrown, behind the scenes it is encapsulated in a SomeException.


SomeException :: Exception e => e -> SomeException 

data IOException

Exceptions that occur in the IO monad. An IOException records a more specific error type, a descriptive string and maybe the handle that was used when the error was flagged.