{-# LANGUAGE Trustworthy #-} {-# LANGUAGE CPP, NoImplicitPrelude, ScopedTypeVariables, MagicHash, BangPatterns #-} ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- | -- Module : GHC.Internal.Data.OldList -- Copyright : (c) The University of Glasgow 2001 -- License : BSD-style (see the file libraries/base/LICENSE) -- -- Maintainer : libraries@haskell.org -- Stability : stable -- Portability : portable -- -- Operations on lists. -- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- module GHC.Internal.Data.OldList ( -- * Basic functions (++) , head , last , tail , init , uncons , unsnoc , singleton , null , length -- * List transformations , map , reverse , intersperse , intercalate , transpose , subsequences , permutations -- * Reducing lists (folds) , foldl , foldl' , foldl1 , foldl1' , foldr , foldr1 -- ** Special folds , concat , concatMap , and , or , any , all , sum , product , maximum , minimum -- * Building lists -- ** Scans , scanl , scanl' , scanl1 , scanr , scanr1 -- ** Accumulating maps , mapAccumL , mapAccumR -- ** Infinite lists , iterate , iterate' , repeat , replicate , cycle -- ** Unfolding , unfoldr -- * Sublists -- ** Extracting sublists , take , drop , splitAt , takeWhile , dropWhile , dropWhileEnd , span , break , stripPrefix , group , inits , tails -- ** Predicates , isPrefixOf , isSuffixOf , isInfixOf -- * Searching lists -- ** Searching by equality , elem , notElem , lookup -- ** Searching with a predicate , find , filter , partition -- * Indexing lists -- | These functions treat a list @xs@ as an indexed collection, -- with indices ranging from 0 to @'length' xs - 1@. , (!?) , (!!) , elemIndex , elemIndices , findIndex , findIndices -- * Zipping and unzipping lists , zip , zip3 , zip4, zip5, zip6, zip7 , zipWith , zipWith3 , zipWith4, zipWith5, zipWith6, zipWith7 , unzip , unzip3 , unzip4, unzip5, unzip6, unzip7 -- * Special lists -- ** Functions on strings , lines , words , unlines , unwords -- ** \"Set\" operations , nub , delete , (\\) , union , intersect -- ** Ordered lists , sort , sortOn , insert -- * Generalized functions -- ** The \"@By@\" operations -- | By convention, overloaded functions have a non-overloaded -- counterpart whose name is suffixed with \`@By@\'. -- -- It is often convenient to use these functions together with -- 'GHC.Internal.Data.Function.on', for instance @'sortBy' ('compare' -- \`on\` 'fst')@. -- *** User-supplied equality (replacing an @Eq@ context) -- | The predicate is assumed to define an equivalence. , nubBy , deleteBy , deleteFirstsBy , unionBy , intersectBy , groupBy -- *** User-supplied comparison (replacing an @Ord@ context) -- | The function is assumed to define a total ordering. , sortBy , insertBy , maximumBy , minimumBy -- ** The \"@generic@\" operations -- | The prefix \`@generic@\' indicates an overloaded function that -- is a generalized version of a "Prelude" function. , genericLength , genericTake , genericDrop , genericSplitAt , genericIndex , genericReplicate ) where import GHC.Internal.Data.Maybe import GHC.Internal.Data.Bits ( (.&.) ) import GHC.Internal.Unicode ( isSpace ) import GHC.Internal.Data.Ord ( comparing ) import GHC.Internal.Data.Tuple ( fst, snd ) import GHC.Internal.Num import GHC.Internal.Real import GHC.Internal.List import GHC.Internal.Base infix 5 \\ -- comment to fool cpp: https://downloads.haskell.org/~ghc/latest/docs/html/users_guide/phases.html#cpp-and-string-gaps -- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- List functions -- | The 'dropWhileEnd' function drops the largest suffix of a list -- in which the given predicate holds for all elements. -- -- ==== __Laziness__ -- -- This function is lazy in spine, but strict in elements, -- which makes it different from 'reverse' '.' 'dropWhile' @p@ '.' 'reverse', -- which is strict in spine, but lazy in elements. For instance: -- -- >>> take 1 (dropWhileEnd (< 0) (1 : undefined)) -- [1] -- -- >>> take 1 (reverse $ dropWhile (< 0) $ reverse (1 : undefined)) -- *** Exception: Prelude.undefined -- -- but on the other hand -- -- >>> last (dropWhileEnd (< 0) [undefined, 1]) -- *** Exception: Prelude.undefined -- -- >>> last (reverse $ dropWhile (< 0) $ reverse [undefined, 1]) -- 1 -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> dropWhileEnd isSpace "foo\n" -- "foo" -- -- >>> dropWhileEnd isSpace "foo bar" -- "foo bar" -- >>> dropWhileEnd (> 10) [1..20] -- [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10] -- -- @since base-4.5.0.0 dropWhileEnd :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] dropWhileEnd :: forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] dropWhileEnd a -> Bool p = (a -> [a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b foldr (\a x [a] xs -> if a -> Bool p a x Bool -> Bool -> Bool && [a] -> Bool forall a. [a] -> Bool null [a] xs then [] else a x a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] xs) [] -- | \(\mathcal{O}(\min(m,n))\). The 'stripPrefix' function drops the given -- prefix from a list. It returns 'Nothing' if the list did not start with the -- prefix given, or 'Just' the list after the prefix, if it does. -- -- ===== __Examples__ -- -- >>> stripPrefix "foo" "foobar" -- Just "bar" -- -- >>> stripPrefix "foo" "foo" -- Just "" -- -- >>> stripPrefix "foo" "barfoo" -- Nothing -- -- >>> stripPrefix "foo" "barfoobaz" -- Nothing stripPrefix :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] stripPrefix :: forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] stripPrefix [] [a] ys = [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a. a -> Maybe a Just [a] ys stripPrefix (a x:[a] xs) (a y:[a] ys) | a x a -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool == a y = [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] stripPrefix [a] xs [a] ys stripPrefix [a] _ [a] _ = Maybe [a] forall a. Maybe a Nothing -- | The 'elemIndex' function returns the index of the first element -- in the given list which is equal (by '==') to the query element, -- or 'Nothing' if there is no such element. -- For the result to be 'Nothing', the list must be finite. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> elemIndex 4 [0..] -- Just 4 -- -- >>> elemIndex 'o' "haskell" -- Nothing -- -- >>> elemIndex 0 [1..] -- * hangs forever * elemIndex :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> Maybe Int elemIndex :: forall a. Eq a => a -> [a] -> Maybe Int elemIndex a x [a] xs = (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Maybe Int forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Maybe Int findIndex (a xa -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool ==) [a] xs -- arity 2 so that we don't get a PAP; #21345 -- | The 'elemIndices' function extends 'elemIndex', by returning the -- indices of all elements equal to the query element, in ascending order. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> elemIndices 'o' "Hello World" -- [4,7] -- -- >>> elemIndices 1 [1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3] -- [0,3] elemIndices :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> [Int] elemIndices :: forall a. Eq a => a -> [a] -> [Int] elemIndices a x [a] xs = (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [Int] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [Int] findIndices (a xa -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool ==) [a] xs -- arity 2 so that we don't get a PAP; #21345 -- | The 'find' function takes a predicate and a list and returns the -- first element in the list matching the predicate, or 'Nothing' if -- there is no such element. -- For the result to be 'Nothing', the list must be finite. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> find (> 4) [1..] -- Just 5 -- -- >>> find (< 0) [1..10] -- Nothing -- -- >>> find ('a' `elem`) ["john", "marcus", "paul"] -- Just "marcus" find :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Maybe a find :: forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Maybe a find a -> Bool p = [a] -> Maybe a forall a. [a] -> Maybe a listToMaybe ([a] -> Maybe a) -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> Maybe a forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] filter a -> Bool p -- | The 'findIndex' function takes a predicate and a list and returns -- the index of the first element in the list satisfying the predicate, -- or 'Nothing' if there is no such element. -- For the result to be 'Nothing', the list must be finite. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> findIndex isSpace "Hello World!" -- Just 5 -- -- >>> findIndex odd [0, 2, 4, 6] -- Nothing -- -- >>> findIndex even [1..] -- Just 1 -- -- >>> findIndex odd [0, 2 ..] -- * hangs forever * findIndex :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Maybe Int findIndex :: forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Maybe Int findIndex a -> Bool p = [Int] -> Maybe Int forall a. [a] -> Maybe a listToMaybe ([Int] -> Maybe Int) -> ([a] -> [Int]) -> [a] -> Maybe Int forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [Int] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [Int] findIndices a -> Bool p -- | The 'findIndices' function extends 'findIndex', by returning the -- indices of all elements satisfying the predicate, in ascending order. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> findIndices (`elem` "aeiou") "Hello World!" -- [1,4,7] -- -- >>> findIndices (\l -> length l > 3) ["a", "bcde", "fgh", "ijklmnop"] -- [1,3] findIndices :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [Int] #if defined(USE_REPORT_PRELUDE) findIndices p xs = [ i | (x,i) <- zip xs [0..], p x] #else -- Efficient definition, adapted from Data.Sequence -- (Note that making this INLINABLE instead of INLINE allows -- 'findIndex' to fuse, fixing #15426.) {-# INLINABLE findIndices #-} findIndices :: forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [Int] findIndices a -> Bool p [a] ls = (forall b. (Int -> b -> b) -> b -> b) -> [Int] forall a. (forall b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> b) -> [a] build ((forall b. (Int -> b -> b) -> b -> b) -> [Int]) -> (forall b. (Int -> b -> b) -> b -> b) -> [Int] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ \Int -> b -> b c b n -> let go :: a -> (Int# -> b) -> Int# -> b go a x Int# -> b r Int# k | a -> Bool p a x = Int# -> Int I# Int# k Int -> b -> b `c` Int# -> b r (Int# k Int# -> Int# -> Int# +# Int# 1#) | Bool otherwise = Int# -> b r (Int# k Int# -> Int# -> Int# +# Int# 1#) in (a -> (Int# -> b) -> Int# -> b) -> (Int# -> b) -> [a] -> Int# -> b forall a b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b foldr a -> (Int# -> b) -> Int# -> b go (\Int# _ -> b n) [a] ls Int# 0# #endif /* USE_REPORT_PRELUDE */ -- | \(\mathcal{O}(\min(m,n))\). The 'isPrefixOf' function takes two lists and -- returns 'True' iff the first list is a prefix of the second. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> "Hello" `isPrefixOf` "Hello World!" -- True -- -- >>> "Hello" `isPrefixOf` "Wello Horld!" -- False -- -- For the result to be 'True', the first list must be finite; -- 'False', however, results from any mismatch: -- -- >>> [0..] `isPrefixOf` [1..] -- False -- -- >>> [0..] `isPrefixOf` [0..99] -- False -- -- >>> [0..99] `isPrefixOf` [0..] -- True -- -- >>> [0..] `isPrefixOf` [0..] -- * Hangs forever * -- -- 'isPrefixOf' shortcuts when the first argument is empty: -- -- >>> isPrefixOf [] undefined -- True -- isPrefixOf :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [a] -> Bool isPrefixOf :: forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool isPrefixOf [] [a] _ = Bool True isPrefixOf [a] _ [] = Bool False isPrefixOf (a x:[a] xs) (a y:[a] ys)= a x a -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool == a y Bool -> Bool -> Bool && [a] -> [a] -> Bool forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool isPrefixOf [a] xs [a] ys -- | The 'isSuffixOf' function takes two lists and returns 'True' iff -- the first list is a suffix of the second. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> "ld!" `isSuffixOf` "Hello World!" -- True -- -- >>> "World" `isSuffixOf` "Hello World!" -- False -- -- The second list must be finite; however the first list may be infinite: -- -- >>> [0..] `isSuffixOf` [0..99] -- False -- -- >>> [0..99] `isSuffixOf` [0..] -- * Hangs forever * -- isSuffixOf :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [a] -> Bool [a] ns isSuffixOf :: forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool `isSuffixOf` [a] hs = Bool -> (Bool -> Bool) -> Maybe Bool -> Bool forall b a. b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b maybe Bool False Bool -> Bool forall a. a -> a id (Maybe Bool -> Bool) -> Maybe Bool -> Bool forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do delta <- [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a b. [a] -> [b] -> Maybe [b] dropLengthMaybe [a] ns [a] hs return $ ns == dropLength delta hs -- Since dropLengthMaybe ns hs succeeded, we know that (if hs is finite) -- length ns + length delta = length hs -- so dropping the length of delta from hs will yield a suffix exactly -- the length of ns. -- A version of drop that drops the length of the first argument from the -- second argument. If xs is longer than ys, xs will not be traversed in its -- entirety. dropLength is also generally faster than (drop . length) -- Both this and dropLengthMaybe could be written as folds over their first -- arguments, but this reduces clarity with no benefit to isSuffixOf. -- -- >>> dropLength "Hello" "Holla world" -- " world" -- -- >>> dropLength [1..] [1,2,3] -- [] dropLength :: [a] -> [b] -> [b] dropLength :: forall a b. [a] -> [b] -> [b] dropLength [] [b] y = [b] y dropLength [a] _ [] = [] dropLength (a _:[a] x') (b _:[b] y') = [a] -> [b] -> [b] forall a b. [a] -> [b] -> [b] dropLength [a] x' [b] y' -- A version of dropLength that returns Nothing if the second list runs out of -- elements before the first. -- -- >>> dropLengthMaybe [1..] [1,2,3] -- Nothing dropLengthMaybe :: [a] -> [b] -> Maybe [b] dropLengthMaybe :: forall a b. [a] -> [b] -> Maybe [b] dropLengthMaybe [] [b] y = [b] -> Maybe [b] forall a. a -> Maybe a Just [b] y dropLengthMaybe [a] _ [] = Maybe [b] forall a. Maybe a Nothing dropLengthMaybe (a _:[a] x') (b _:[b] y') = [a] -> [b] -> Maybe [b] forall a b. [a] -> [b] -> Maybe [b] dropLengthMaybe [a] x' [b] y' -- | The 'isInfixOf' function takes two lists and returns 'True' -- iff the first list is contained, wholly and intact, -- anywhere within the second. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> isInfixOf "Haskell" "I really like Haskell." -- True -- -- >>> isInfixOf "Ial" "I really like Haskell." -- False -- -- For the result to be 'True', the first list must be finite; -- for the result to be 'False', the second list must be finite: -- -- >>> [20..50] `isInfixOf` [0..] -- True -- -- >>> [0..] `isInfixOf` [20..50] -- False -- -- >>> [0..] `isInfixOf` [0..] -- * Hangs forever * isInfixOf :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [a] -> Bool isInfixOf :: forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool isInfixOf [a] needle [a] haystack = ([a] -> Bool) -> [[a]] -> Bool forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool any ([a] -> [a] -> Bool forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool isPrefixOf [a] needle) ([a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] tails [a] haystack) -- | \(\mathcal{O}(n^2)\). The 'nub' function removes duplicate elements from a -- list. In particular, it keeps only the first occurrence of each element. (The -- name 'nub' means \`essence\'.) It is a special case of 'nubBy', which allows -- the programmer to supply their own equality test. -- -- -- If there exists @instance Ord a@, it's faster to use `nubOrd` from the `containers` package -- ([link to the latest online documentation](https://hackage.haskell.org/package/containers/docs/Data-Containers-ListUtils.html#v:nubOrd)), -- which takes only \(\mathcal{O}(n \log d)\) time where `d` is the number of -- distinct elements in the list. -- -- Another approach to speed up 'nub' is to use -- 'map' @Data.List.NonEmpty.@'Data.List.NonEmpty.head' . @Data.List.NonEmpty.@'Data.List.NonEmpty.group' . 'sort', -- which takes \(\mathcal{O}(n \log n)\) time, requires @instance Ord a@ and doesn't -- preserve the order. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> nub [1,2,3,4,3,2,1,2,4,3,5] -- [1,2,3,4,5] -- -- >>> nub "hello, world!" -- "helo, wrd!" nub :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [a] nub :: forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] nub = (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] nubBy a -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool (==) -- | The 'nubBy' function behaves just like 'nub', except it uses a -- user-supplied equality predicate instead of the overloaded '(==)' -- function. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> nubBy (\x y -> mod x 3 == mod y 3) [1,2,4,5,6] -- [1,2,6] -- -- >>> nubBy (/=) [2, 7, 1, 8, 2, 8, 1, 8, 2, 8] -- [2,2,2] -- -- >>> nubBy (>) [1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 5, 4, 5, 3, 2] -- [1,2,3,5,5] nubBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] #if defined(USE_REPORT_PRELUDE) nubBy eq [] = [] nubBy eq (x:xs) = x : nubBy eq (filter (\ y -> not (eq x y)) xs) #else -- stolen from HBC nubBy :: forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] nubBy a -> a -> Bool eq [a] l = [a] -> [a] -> [a] nubBy' [a] l [] where nubBy' :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] nubBy' [] [a] _ = [] nubBy' (a y:[a] ys) [a] xs | (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> Bool forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> Bool elem_by a -> a -> Bool eq a y [a] xs = [a] -> [a] -> [a] nubBy' [a] ys [a] xs | Bool otherwise = a y a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [a] -> [a] nubBy' [a] ys (a ya -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] xs) -- Not exported: -- Note that we keep the call to `eq` with arguments in the -- same order as in the reference (prelude) implementation, -- and that this order is different from how `elem` calls (==). -- See #2528, #3280 and #7913. -- 'xs' is the list of things we've seen so far, -- 'y' is the potential new element elem_by :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> Bool elem_by :: forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> Bool elem_by a -> a -> Bool _ a _ [] = Bool False elem_by a -> a -> Bool eq a y (a x:[a] xs) = a x a -> a -> Bool `eq` a y Bool -> Bool -> Bool || (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> Bool forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> Bool elem_by a -> a -> Bool eq a y [a] xs #endif -- | \(\mathcal{O}(n)\). 'delete' @x@ removes the first occurrence of @x@ from -- its list argument. -- -- It is a special case of 'deleteBy', which allows the programmer to -- supply their own equality test. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> delete 'a' "banana" -- "bnana" -- -- >>> delete "not" ["haskell", "is", "not", "awesome"] -- ["haskell","is","awesome"] delete :: (Eq a) => a -> [a] -> [a] delete :: forall a. Eq a => a -> [a] -> [a] delete = (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> [a] deleteBy a -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool (==) -- | \(\mathcal{O}(n)\). The 'deleteBy' function behaves like 'delete', but -- takes a user-supplied equality predicate. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> deleteBy (<=) 4 [1..10] -- [1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9,10] -- -- >>> deleteBy (/=) 5 [5, 5, 4, 3, 5, 2] -- [5,5,3,5,2] deleteBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> [a] deleteBy :: forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> [a] deleteBy a -> a -> Bool _ a _ [] = [] deleteBy a -> a -> Bool eq a x (a y:[a] ys) = if a x a -> a -> Bool `eq` a y then [a] ys else a y a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> [a] deleteBy a -> a -> Bool eq a x [a] ys -- | The '\\' function is list difference (non-associative). -- In the result of @xs@ '\\' @ys@, the first occurrence of each element of -- @ys@ in turn (if any) has been removed from @xs@. Thus -- @(xs ++ ys) \\\\ xs == ys@. -- -- It is a special case of 'deleteFirstsBy', which allows the programmer -- to supply their own equality test. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> "Hello World!" \\ "ell W" -- "Hoorld!" -- -- The second list must be finite, but the first may be infinite. -- -- >>> take 5 ([0..] \\ [2..4]) -- [0,1,5,6,7] -- -- >>> take 5 ([0..] \\ [2..]) -- * Hangs forever * (\\) :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [a] -> [a] \\ :: forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] (\\) = ([a] -> a -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a b. (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b foldl ((a -> [a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> a -> [a] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c flip a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Eq a => a -> [a] -> [a] delete) -- | The 'union' function returns the list union of the two lists. -- It is a special case of 'unionBy', which allows the programmer to supply -- their own equality test. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> "dog" `union` "cow" -- "dogcw" -- -- If equal elements are present in both lists, an element from the first list -- will be used. If the second list contains equal elements, only the first one -- will be retained: -- -- >>> import Data.Semigroup(Arg(..)) -- >>> union [Arg () "dog"] [Arg () "cow"] -- [Arg () "dog"] -- >>> union [] [Arg () "dog", Arg () "cow"] -- [Arg () "dog"] -- -- However if the first list contains duplicates, so will -- the result: -- -- >>> "coot" `union` "duck" -- "cootduk" -- >>> "duck" `union` "coot" -- "duckot" -- -- 'union' is productive even if both arguments are infinite. -- -- >>> [0, 2 ..] `union` [1, 3 ..] -- [0,2,4,6,8,10,12.. union :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [a] -> [a] union :: forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] union = (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] unionBy a -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool (==) -- | The 'unionBy' function is the non-overloaded version of 'union'. -- Both arguments may be infinite. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> unionBy (>) [3, 4, 5] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] -- [3,4,5,4,5,6] -- -- >>> import Data.Semigroup (Arg(..)) -- >>> unionBy (/=) [Arg () "Saul"] [Arg () "Kim"] -- [Arg () "Saul", Arg () "Kim"] unionBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] unionBy :: forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] unionBy a -> a -> Bool eq [a] xs [a] ys = [a] xs [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ ([a] -> a -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a b. (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b foldl ((a -> [a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> a -> [a] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c flip ((a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> [a] deleteBy a -> a -> Bool eq)) ((a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] nubBy a -> a -> Bool eq [a] ys) [a] xs -- | The 'intersect' function takes the list intersection of two lists. -- It is a special case of 'intersectBy', which allows the programmer to -- supply their own equality test. -- -- ===== __Examples__ -- -- >>> [1,2,3,4] `intersect` [2,4,6,8] -- [2,4] -- -- If equal elements are present in both lists, an element from the first list -- will be used, and all duplicates from the second list quashed: -- -- >>> import Data.Semigroup -- >>> intersect [Arg () "dog"] [Arg () "cow", Arg () "cat"] -- [Arg () "dog"] -- -- However if the first list contains duplicates, so will the result. -- -- >>> "coot" `intersect` "heron" -- "oo" -- >>> "heron" `intersect` "coot" -- "o" -- -- If the second list is infinite, 'intersect' either hangs -- or returns its first argument in full. Otherwise if the first list -- is infinite, 'intersect' might be productive: -- -- >>> intersect [100..] [0..] -- [100,101,102,103... -- >>> intersect [0] [1..] -- * Hangs forever * -- >>> intersect [1..] [0] -- * Hangs forever * -- >>> intersect (cycle [1..3]) [2] -- [2,2,2,2... -- intersect :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [a] -> [a] intersect :: forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] intersect = (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] intersectBy a -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool (==) -- | The 'intersectBy' function is the non-overloaded version of 'intersect'. -- It is productive for infinite arguments only if the first one -- is a subset of the second. -- intersectBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] intersectBy :: forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] intersectBy a -> a -> Bool _ [] [a] _ = [] intersectBy a -> a -> Bool _ [a] _ [] = [] intersectBy a -> a -> Bool eq [a] xs [a] ys = [a x | a x <- [a] xs, (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool any (a -> a -> Bool eq a x) [a] ys] -- | \(\mathcal{O}(n)\). The 'intersperse' function takes an element and a list -- and \`intersperses\' that element between the elements of the list. -- -- ==== __Laziness__ -- -- 'intersperse' has the following properties -- -- >>> take 1 (intersperse undefined ('a' : undefined)) -- "a" -- -- >>> take 2 (intersperse ',' ('a' : undefined)) -- "a*** Exception: Prelude.undefined -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> intersperse ',' "abcde" -- "a,b,c,d,e" -- -- >>> intersperse 1 [3, 4, 5] -- [3,1,4,1,5] intersperse :: a -> [a] -> [a] intersperse :: forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] intersperse a _ [] = [] intersperse a sep (a x:[a] xs) = a x a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] prependToAll a sep [a] xs -- Not exported: -- We want to make every element in the 'intersperse'd list available -- as soon as possible to avoid space leaks. Experiments suggested that -- a separate top-level helper is more efficient than a local worker. prependToAll :: a -> [a] -> [a] prependToAll :: forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] prependToAll a _ [] = [] prependToAll a sep (a x:[a] xs) = a sep a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : a x a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] prependToAll a sep [a] xs -- | 'intercalate' @xs xss@ is equivalent to @('concat' ('intersperse' xs xss))@. -- It inserts the list @xs@ in between the lists in @xss@ and concatenates the -- result. -- -- ==== __Laziness__ -- -- 'intercalate' has the following properties: -- -- >>> take 5 (intercalate undefined ("Lorem" : undefined)) -- "Lorem" -- -- >>> take 6 (intercalate ", " ("Lorem" : undefined)) -- "Lorem*** Exception: Prelude.undefined -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> intercalate ", " ["Lorem", "ipsum", "dolor"] -- "Lorem, ipsum, dolor" -- -- >>> intercalate [0, 1] [[2, 3], [4, 5, 6], []] -- [2,3,0,1,4,5,6,0,1] -- -- >>> intercalate [1, 2, 3] [[], []] -- [1,2,3] intercalate :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [a] intercalate :: forall a. [a] -> [[a]] -> [a] intercalate [a] xs [[a]] xss = [[a]] -> [a] forall a. [[a]] -> [a] concat ([a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] intersperse [a] xs [[a]] xss) -- | The 'transpose' function transposes the rows and columns of its argument. -- -- ==== __Laziness__ -- -- 'transpose' is lazy in its elements -- -- >>> take 1 (transpose ['a' : undefined, 'b' : undefined]) -- ["ab"] -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> transpose [[1,2,3],[4,5,6]] -- [[1,4],[2,5],[3,6]] -- -- If some of the rows are shorter than the following rows, their elements are skipped: -- -- >>> transpose [[10,11],[20],[],[30,31,32]] -- [[10,20,30],[11,31],[32]] -- -- For this reason the outer list must be finite; otherwise 'transpose' hangs: -- -- >>> transpose (repeat []) -- * Hangs forever * transpose :: [[a]] -> [[a]] transpose :: forall a. [[a]] -> [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : [[a]] xss) = [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [[a]] -> [[a]] transpose [[a]] xss transpose ((a x : [a] xs) : [[a]] xss) = a -> [a] -> [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall {a}. a -> [a] -> [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] combine a x [a] hds [a] xs [[a]] tls where -- We tie the calculations of heads and tails together -- to prevent heads from leaking into tails and vice versa. -- unzip makes the selector thunk arrangements we need to -- ensure everything gets cleaned up properly. ([a] hds, [[a]] tls) = [(a, [a])] -> ([a], [[a]]) forall a b. [(a, b)] -> ([a], [b]) unzip [(a hd, [a] tl) | a hd : [a] tl <- [[a]] xss] combine :: a -> [a] -> [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] combine a y [a] h [a] ys [[a]] t = (a ya -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] h) [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [[a]] -> [[a]] transpose ([a] ys[a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[[a]] t) {-# NOINLINE combine #-} {- Implementation note: If the bottom part of the function was written as such: ``` transpose ((x : xs) : xss) = (x:hds) : transpose (xs:tls) where (hds,tls) = hdstls hdstls = unzip [(hd, tl) | hd : tl <- xss] {-# NOINLINE hdstls #-} ``` Here are the steps that would take place: 1. We allocate a thunk, `hdstls`, representing the result of unzipping. 2. We allocate selector thunks, `hds` and `tls`, that deconstruct `hdstls`. 3. Install `hds` as the tail of the result head and pass `xs:tls` to the recursive call in the result tail. Once optimised, this code would amount to: ``` transpose ((x : xs) : xss) = (x:hds) : (let tls = snd hdstls in transpose (xs:tls)) where hds = fst hdstls hdstls = unzip [(hd, tl) | hd : tl <- xss] {-# NOINLINE hdstls #-} ``` In particular, GHC does not produce the `tls` selector thunk immediately; rather, it waits to do so until the tail of the result is actually demanded. So when `hds` is demanded, that does not resolve `snd hdstls`; the tail of the result keeps `hdstls` alive. By writing `combine` and making it NOINLINE, we prevent GHC from delaying the selector thunk allocation, requiring that `hds` and `tls` are actually allocated to be passed to `combine`. -} -- | The 'partition' function takes a predicate and a list, and returns -- the pair of lists of elements which do and do not satisfy the -- predicate, respectively; i.e., -- -- > partition p xs == (filter p xs, filter (not . p) xs) -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> partition (`elem` "aeiou") "Hello World!" -- ("eoo","Hll Wrld!") -- -- >>> partition even [1..10] -- ([2,4,6,8,10],[1,3,5,7,9]) -- -- >>> partition (< 5) [1..10] -- ([1,2,3,4],[5,6,7,8,9,10]) partition :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a],[a]) {-# INLINE partition #-} partition :: forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) partition a -> Bool p [a] xs = (a -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a])) -> ([a], [a]) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b foldr ((a -> Bool) -> a -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> a -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) select a -> Bool p) ([],[]) [a] xs select :: (a -> Bool) -> a -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) select :: forall a. (a -> Bool) -> a -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) select a -> Bool p a x ~([a] ts,[a] fs) | a -> Bool p a x = (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] ts,[a] fs) | Bool otherwise = ([a] ts, a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] fs) -- | The 'mapAccumL' function behaves like a combination of 'map' and -- 'foldl'; it applies a function to each element of a list, passing -- an accumulating parameter from left to right, and returning a final -- value of this accumulator together with the new list. -- -- 'mapAccumL' does not force accumulator if it is unused: -- -- >>> take 1 (snd (mapAccumL (\_ x -> (undefined, x)) undefined ('a' : undefined))) -- "a" -- mapAccumL :: (acc -> x -> (acc, y)) -- Function of elt of input list -- and accumulator, returning new -- accumulator and elt of result list -> acc -- Initial accumulator -> [x] -- Input list -> (acc, [y]) -- Final accumulator and result list {-# NOINLINE [1] mapAccumL #-} mapAccumL :: forall acc x y. (acc -> x -> (acc, y)) -> acc -> [x] -> (acc, [y]) mapAccumL acc -> x -> (acc, y) _ acc s [] = (acc s, []) mapAccumL acc -> x -> (acc, y) f acc s (x x:[x] xs) = (acc s'',y yy -> [y] -> [y] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[y] ys) where (acc s', y y ) = acc -> x -> (acc, y) f acc s x x (acc s'',[y] ys) = (acc -> x -> (acc, y)) -> acc -> [x] -> (acc, [y]) forall acc x y. (acc -> x -> (acc, y)) -> acc -> [x] -> (acc, [y]) mapAccumL acc -> x -> (acc, y) f acc s' [x] xs {-# RULES "mapAccumL" [~1] forall f s xs . mapAccumL f s xs = foldr (mapAccumLF f) pairWithNil xs s "mapAccumLList" [1] forall f s xs . foldr (mapAccumLF f) pairWithNil xs s = mapAccumL f s xs #-} pairWithNil :: acc -> (acc, [y]) {-# INLINE [0] pairWithNil #-} pairWithNil :: forall acc y. acc -> (acc, [y]) pairWithNil acc x = (acc x, []) mapAccumLF :: (acc -> x -> (acc, y)) -> x -> (acc -> (acc, [y])) -> acc -> (acc, [y]) {-# INLINE [0] mapAccumLF #-} mapAccumLF :: forall acc x y. (acc -> x -> (acc, y)) -> x -> (acc -> (acc, [y])) -> acc -> (acc, [y]) mapAccumLF acc -> x -> (acc, y) f = \x x acc -> (acc, [y]) r -> (acc -> (acc, [y])) -> acc -> (acc, [y]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b oneShot (\acc s -> let (acc s', y y) = acc -> x -> (acc, y) f acc s x x (acc s'', [y] ys) = acc -> (acc, [y]) r acc s' in (acc s'', y yy -> [y] -> [y] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[y] ys)) -- See Note [Left folds via right fold] -- | The 'mapAccumR' function behaves like a combination of 'map' and -- 'foldr'; it applies a function to each element of a list, passing -- an accumulating parameter from right to left, and returning a final -- value of this accumulator together with the new list. mapAccumR :: (acc -> x -> (acc, y)) -- Function of elt of input list -- and accumulator, returning new -- accumulator and elt of result list -> acc -- Initial accumulator -> [x] -- Input list -> (acc, [y]) -- Final accumulator and result list mapAccumR :: forall acc x y. (acc -> x -> (acc, y)) -> acc -> [x] -> (acc, [y]) mapAccumR acc -> x -> (acc, y) _ acc s [] = (acc s, []) mapAccumR acc -> x -> (acc, y) f acc s (x x:[x] xs) = (acc s'', y yy -> [y] -> [y] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[y] ys) where (acc s'',y y ) = acc -> x -> (acc, y) f acc s' x x (acc s', [y] ys) = (acc -> x -> (acc, y)) -> acc -> [x] -> (acc, [y]) forall acc x y. (acc -> x -> (acc, y)) -> acc -> [x] -> (acc, [y]) mapAccumR acc -> x -> (acc, y) f acc s [x] xs -- | \(\mathcal{O}(n)\). The 'insert' function takes an element and a list and -- inserts the element into the list at the first position where it is less than -- or equal to the next element. In particular, if the list is sorted before the -- call, the result will also be sorted. It is a special case of 'insertBy', -- which allows the programmer to supply their own comparison function. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> insert (-1) [1, 2, 3] -- [-1,1,2,3] -- -- >>> insert 'd' "abcefg" -- "abcdefg" -- -- >>> insert 4 [1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7] -- [1,2,3,4,5,6,7] insert :: Ord a => a -> [a] -> [a] insert :: forall a. Ord a => a -> [a] -> [a] insert a e [a] ls = (a -> a -> Ordering) -> a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> a -> Ordering) -> a -> [a] -> [a] insertBy (a -> a -> Ordering forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Ordering compare) a e [a] ls -- | \(\mathcal{O}(n)\). The non-overloaded version of 'insert'. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> insertBy (\x y -> compare (length x) (length y)) [1, 2] [[1], [1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3, 4]] -- [[1],[1,2],[1,2,3],[1,2,3,4]] insertBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> a -> [a] -> [a] insertBy :: forall a. (a -> a -> Ordering) -> a -> [a] -> [a] insertBy a -> a -> Ordering _ a x [] = [a x] insertBy a -> a -> Ordering cmp a x ys :: [a] ys@(a y:[a] ys') = case a -> a -> Ordering cmp a x a y of Ordering GT -> a y a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : (a -> a -> Ordering) -> a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> a -> Ordering) -> a -> [a] -> [a] insertBy a -> a -> Ordering cmp a x [a] ys' Ordering _ -> a x a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] ys -- | The 'maximumBy' function is the non-overloaded version of 'maximum', -- which takes a comparison function and a list -- and returns the greatest element of the list by the comparison function. -- The list must be finite and non-empty. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- We can use this to find the longest entry of a list: -- -- >>> maximumBy (\x y -> compare (length x) (length y)) ["Hello", "World", "!", "Longest", "bar"] -- "Longest" -- -- >>> minimumBy (\(a, b) (c, d) -> compare (abs (a - b)) (abs (c - d))) [(10, 15), (1, 2), (3, 5)] -- (10, 15) maximumBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> a maximumBy :: forall a. (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> a maximumBy a -> a -> Ordering _ [] = [Char] -> a forall a. [Char] -> a errorWithoutStackTrace [Char] "List.maximumBy: empty list" maximumBy a -> a -> Ordering cmp [a] xs = (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a forall a. HasCallStack => (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a foldl1 a -> a -> a maxBy [a] xs where maxBy :: a -> a -> a maxBy a x a y = case a -> a -> Ordering cmp a x a y of Ordering GT -> a x Ordering _ -> a y -- | The 'minimumBy' function is the non-overloaded version of 'minimum', -- which takes a comparison function and a list -- and returns the least element of the list by the comparison function. -- The list must be finite and non-empty. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- We can use this to find the shortest entry of a list: -- -- >>> minimumBy (\x y -> compare (length x) (length y)) ["Hello", "World", "!", "Longest", "bar"] -- "!" -- -- >>> minimumBy (\(a, b) (c, d) -> compare (abs (a - b)) (abs (c - d))) [(10, 15), (1, 2), (3, 5)] -- (1, 2) minimumBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> a minimumBy :: forall a. (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> a minimumBy a -> a -> Ordering _ [] = [Char] -> a forall a. [Char] -> a errorWithoutStackTrace [Char] "List.minimumBy: empty list" minimumBy a -> a -> Ordering cmp [a] xs = (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a forall a. HasCallStack => (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a foldl1 a -> a -> a minBy [a] xs where minBy :: a -> a -> a minBy a x a y = case a -> a -> Ordering cmp a x a y of Ordering GT -> a y Ordering _ -> a x -- | \(\mathcal{O}(n)\). The 'genericLength' function is an overloaded version -- of 'length'. In particular, instead of returning an 'Int', it returns any -- type which is an instance of 'Num'. It is, however, less efficient than -- 'length'. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> genericLength [1, 2, 3] :: Int -- 3 -- >>> genericLength [1, 2, 3] :: Float -- 3.0 -- -- Users should take care to pick a return type that is wide enough to contain -- the full length of the list. If the width is insufficient, the overflow -- behaviour will depend on the @(+)@ implementation in the selected 'Num' -- instance. The following example overflows because the actual list length -- of 200 lies outside of the 'Int8' range of @-128..127@. -- -- >>> genericLength [1..200] :: Int8 -- -56 genericLength :: (Num i) => [a] -> i {-# NOINLINE [2] genericLength #-} -- Give time for the RULEs for (++) to fire in InitialPhase -- It's recursive, so won't inline anyway, -- but saying so is more explicit genericLength :: forall i a. Num i => [a] -> i genericLength [] = i 0 genericLength (a _:[a] l) = i 1 i -> i -> i forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a + [a] -> i forall i a. Num i => [a] -> i genericLength [a] l {-# RULES "genericLengthInt" genericLength = (strictGenericLength :: [a] -> Int); "genericLengthInteger" genericLength = (strictGenericLength :: [a] -> Integer); #-} strictGenericLength :: (Num i) => [b] -> i strictGenericLength :: forall i a. Num i => [a] -> i strictGenericLength [b] l = [b] -> i -> i forall {t} {a}. Num t => [a] -> t -> t gl [b] l i 0 where gl :: [a] -> t -> t gl [] t a = t a gl (a _:[a] xs) t a = let a' :: t a' = t a t -> t -> t forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a + t 1 in t a' t -> t -> t forall a b. a -> b -> b `seq` [a] -> t -> t gl [a] xs t a' {-# INLINABLE strictGenericLength #-} -- | The 'genericTake' function is an overloaded version of 'take', which -- accepts any 'Integral' value as the number of elements to take. genericTake :: (Integral i) => i -> [a] -> [a] genericTake :: forall i a. Integral i => i -> [a] -> [a] genericTake i n [a] _ | i n i -> i -> Bool forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Bool <= i 0 = [] genericTake i _ [] = [] genericTake i n (a x:[a] xs) = a x a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : i -> [a] -> [a] forall i a. Integral i => i -> [a] -> [a] genericTake (i ni -> i -> i forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a -i 1) [a] xs {-# INLINABLE genericTake #-} -- | The 'genericDrop' function is an overloaded version of 'drop', which -- accepts any 'Integral' value as the number of elements to drop. genericDrop :: (Integral i) => i -> [a] -> [a] genericDrop :: forall i a. Integral i => i -> [a] -> [a] genericDrop i n [a] xs | i n i -> i -> Bool forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Bool <= i 0 = [a] xs genericDrop i _ [] = [] genericDrop i n (a _:[a] xs) = i -> [a] -> [a] forall i a. Integral i => i -> [a] -> [a] genericDrop (i ni -> i -> i forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a -i 1) [a] xs {-# INLINABLE genericDrop #-} -- | The 'genericSplitAt' function is an overloaded version of 'splitAt', which -- accepts any 'Integral' value as the position at which to split. genericSplitAt :: (Integral i) => i -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) genericSplitAt :: forall i a. Integral i => i -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) genericSplitAt i n [a] xs | i n i -> i -> Bool forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Bool <= i 0 = ([],[a] xs) genericSplitAt i _ [] = ([],[]) genericSplitAt i n (a x:[a] xs) = (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] xs',[a] xs'') where ([a] xs',[a] xs'') = i -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall i a. Integral i => i -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) genericSplitAt (i ni -> i -> i forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a -i 1) [a] xs {-# INLINABLE genericSplitAt #-} -- | The 'genericIndex' function is an overloaded version of '!!', which -- accepts any 'Integral' value as the index. genericIndex :: (Integral i) => [a] -> i -> a genericIndex :: forall i a. Integral i => [a] -> i -> a genericIndex (a x:[a] _) i 0 = a x genericIndex (a _:[a] xs) i n | i n i -> i -> Bool forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Bool > i 0 = [a] -> i -> a forall i a. Integral i => [a] -> i -> a genericIndex [a] xs (i ni -> i -> i forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a -i 1) | Bool otherwise = [Char] -> a forall a. [Char] -> a errorWithoutStackTrace [Char] "List.genericIndex: negative argument." genericIndex [a] _ i _ = [Char] -> a forall a. [Char] -> a errorWithoutStackTrace [Char] "List.genericIndex: index too large." {-# INLINABLE genericIndex #-} -- | The 'genericReplicate' function is an overloaded version of 'replicate', -- which accepts any 'Integral' value as the number of repetitions to make. genericReplicate :: (Integral i) => i -> a -> [a] genericReplicate :: forall i a. Integral i => i -> a -> [a] genericReplicate i n a x = i -> [a] -> [a] forall i a. Integral i => i -> [a] -> [a] genericTake i n (a -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] repeat a x) {-# INLINABLE genericReplicate #-} -- | The 'zip4' function takes four lists and returns a list of -- quadruples, analogous to 'zip'. -- It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its -- first list argument and its resulting list. {-# INLINE zip4 #-} zip4 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [(a,b,c,d)] zip4 :: forall a b c d. [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [(a, b, c, d)] zip4 = (a -> b -> c -> d -> (a, b, c, d)) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [(a, b, c, d)] forall a b c d e. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] zipWith4 (,,,) -- | The 'zip5' function takes five lists and returns a list of -- five-tuples, analogous to 'zip'. -- It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its -- first list argument and its resulting list. {-# INLINE zip5 #-} zip5 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [(a,b,c,d,e)] zip5 :: forall a b c d e. [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [(a, b, c, d, e)] zip5 = (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> (a, b, c, d, e)) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [(a, b, c, d, e)] forall a b c d e f. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] zipWith5 (,,,,) -- | The 'zip6' function takes six lists and returns a list of six-tuples, -- analogous to 'zip'. -- It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its -- first list argument and its resulting list. {-# INLINE zip6 #-} zip6 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [(a,b,c,d,e,f)] zip6 :: forall a b c d e f. [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] zip6 = (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> (a, b, c, d, e, f)) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] forall a b c d e f g. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] zipWith6 (,,,,,) -- | The 'zip7' function takes seven lists and returns a list of -- seven-tuples, analogous to 'zip'. -- It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its -- first list argument and its resulting list. {-# INLINE zip7 #-} zip7 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> [(a,b,c,d,e,f,g)] zip7 :: forall a b c d e f g. [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] zip7 = (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g)) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] forall a b c d e f g h. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> [h] zipWith7 (,,,,,,) -- | The 'zipWith4' function takes a function which combines four -- elements, as well as four lists and returns a list of their point-wise -- combination, analogous to 'zipWith'. -- It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its -- first list argument and its resulting list. {-# NOINLINE [1] zipWith4 #-} zipWith4 :: (a->b->c->d->e) -> [a]->[b]->[c]->[d]->[e] zipWith4 :: forall a b c d e. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] zipWith4 a -> b -> c -> d -> e z (a a:[a] as) (b b:[b] bs) (c c:[c] cs) (d d:[d] ds) = a -> b -> c -> d -> e z a a b b c c d d e -> [e] -> [e] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : (a -> b -> c -> d -> e) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] forall a b c d e. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] zipWith4 a -> b -> c -> d -> e z [a] as [b] bs [c] cs [d] ds zipWith4 a -> b -> c -> d -> e _ [a] _ [b] _ [c] _ [d] _ = [] -- | The 'zipWith5' function takes a function which combines five -- elements, as well as five lists and returns a list of their point-wise -- combination, analogous to 'zipWith'. -- It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its -- first list argument and its resulting list. {-# NOINLINE [1] zipWith5 #-} zipWith5 :: (a->b->c->d->e->f) -> [a]->[b]->[c]->[d]->[e]->[f] zipWith5 :: forall a b c d e f. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] zipWith5 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f z (a a:[a] as) (b b:[b] bs) (c c:[c] cs) (d d:[d] ds) (e e:[e] es) = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f z a a b b c c d d e e f -> [f] -> [f] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] forall a b c d e f. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] zipWith5 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f z [a] as [b] bs [c] cs [d] ds [e] es zipWith5 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f _ [a] _ [b] _ [c] _ [d] _ [e] _ = [] -- | The 'zipWith6' function takes a function which combines six -- elements, as well as six lists and returns a list of their point-wise -- combination, analogous to 'zipWith'. -- It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its -- first list argument and its resulting list. {-# NOINLINE [1] zipWith6 #-} zipWith6 :: (a->b->c->d->e->f->g) -> [a]->[b]->[c]->[d]->[e]->[f]->[g] zipWith6 :: forall a b c d e f g. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] zipWith6 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g z (a a:[a] as) (b b:[b] bs) (c c:[c] cs) (d d:[d] ds) (e e:[e] es) (f f:[f] fs) = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g z a a b b c c d d e e f f g -> [g] -> [g] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] forall a b c d e f g. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] zipWith6 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g z [a] as [b] bs [c] cs [d] ds [e] es [f] fs zipWith6 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g _ [a] _ [b] _ [c] _ [d] _ [e] _ [f] _ = [] -- | The 'zipWith7' function takes a function which combines seven -- elements, as well as seven lists and returns a list of their point-wise -- combination, analogous to 'zipWith'. -- It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its -- first list argument and its resulting list. {-# NOINLINE [1] zipWith7 #-} zipWith7 :: (a->b->c->d->e->f->g->h) -> [a]->[b]->[c]->[d]->[e]->[f]->[g]->[h] zipWith7 :: forall a b c d e f g h. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> [h] zipWith7 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h z (a a:[a] as) (b b:[b] bs) (c c:[c] cs) (d d:[d] ds) (e e:[e] es) (f f:[f] fs) (g g:[g] gs) = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h z a a b b c c d d e e f f g g h -> [h] -> [h] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> [h] forall a b c d e f g h. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> [h] zipWith7 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h z [a] as [b] bs [c] cs [d] ds [e] es [f] fs [g] gs zipWith7 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h _ [a] _ [b] _ [c] _ [d] _ [e] _ [f] _ [g] _ = [] {- Functions and rules for fusion of zipWith4, zipWith5, zipWith6 and zipWith7. The principle is the same as for zip and zipWith in GHC.Internal.List: Turn zipWithX into a version in which the first argument and the result can be fused. Turn it back into the original function if no fusion happens. -} {-# INLINE [0] zipWith4FB #-} -- See Note [Inline FB functions] zipWith4FB :: (e->xs->xs') -> (a->b->c->d->e) -> a->b->c->d->xs->xs' zipWith4FB :: forall e xs xs' a b c d. (e -> xs -> xs') -> (a -> b -> c -> d -> e) -> a -> b -> c -> d -> xs -> xs' zipWith4FB e -> xs -> xs' cons a -> b -> c -> d -> e func = \a a b b c c d d xs r -> (a -> b -> c -> d -> e func a a b b c c d d) e -> xs -> xs' `cons` xs r {-# INLINE [0] zipWith5FB #-} -- See Note [Inline FB functions] zipWith5FB :: (f->xs->xs') -> (a->b->c->d->e->f) -> a->b->c->d->e->xs->xs' zipWith5FB :: forall f xs xs' a b c d e. (f -> xs -> xs') -> (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f) -> a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> xs -> xs' zipWith5FB f -> xs -> xs' cons a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f func = \a a b b c c d d e e xs r -> (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f func a a b b c c d d e e) f -> xs -> xs' `cons` xs r {-# INLINE [0] zipWith6FB #-} -- See Note [Inline FB functions] zipWith6FB :: (g->xs->xs') -> (a->b->c->d->e->f->g) -> a->b->c->d->e->f->xs->xs' zipWith6FB :: forall g xs xs' a b c d e f. (g -> xs -> xs') -> (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g) -> a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> xs -> xs' zipWith6FB g -> xs -> xs' cons a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g func = \a a b b c c d d e e f f xs r -> (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g func a a b b c c d d e e f f) g -> xs -> xs' `cons` xs r {-# INLINE [0] zipWith7FB #-} -- See Note [Inline FB functions] zipWith7FB :: (h->xs->xs') -> (a->b->c->d->e->f->g->h) -> a->b->c->d->e->f->g->xs->xs' zipWith7FB :: forall h xs xs' a b c d e f g. (h -> xs -> xs') -> (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h) -> a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> xs -> xs' zipWith7FB h -> xs -> xs' cons a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h func = \a a b b c c d d e e f f g g xs r -> (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h func a a b b c c d d e e f f g g) h -> xs -> xs' `cons` xs r {-# INLINE [0] foldr4 #-} foldr4 :: (a->b->c->d->e->e) -> e->[a]->[b]->[c]->[d]->e foldr4 :: forall a b c d e. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> e) -> e -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> e foldr4 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> e k e z = [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> e go where go :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> e go (a a:[a] as) (b b:[b] bs) (c c:[c] cs) (d d:[d] ds) = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> e k a a b b c c d d ([a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> e go [a] as [b] bs [c] cs [d] ds) go [a] _ [b] _ [c] _ [d] _ = e z {-# INLINE [0] foldr5 #-} foldr5 :: (a->b->c->d->e->f->f) -> f->[a]->[b]->[c]->[d]->[e]->f foldr5 :: forall a b c d e f. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> f) -> f -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> f foldr5 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> f k f z = [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> f go where go :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> f go (a a:[a] as) (b b:[b] bs) (c c:[c] cs) (d d:[d] ds) (e e:[e] es) = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> f k a a b b c c d d e e ([a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> f go [a] as [b] bs [c] cs [d] ds [e] es) go [a] _ [b] _ [c] _ [d] _ [e] _ = f z {-# INLINE [0] foldr6 #-} foldr6 :: (a->b->c->d->e->f->g->g) -> g->[a]->[b]->[c]->[d]->[e]->[f]->g foldr6 :: forall a b c d e f g. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> g) -> g -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> g foldr6 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> g k g z = [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> g go where go :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> g go (a a:[a] as) (b b:[b] bs) (c c:[c] cs) (d d:[d] ds) (e e:[e] es) (f f:[f] fs) = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> g k a a b b c c d d e e f f ( [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> g go [a] as [b] bs [c] cs [d] ds [e] es [f] fs) go [a] _ [b] _ [c] _ [d] _ [e] _ [f] _ = g z {-# INLINE [0] foldr7 #-} foldr7 :: (a->b->c->d->e->f->g->h->h) -> h->[a]->[b]->[c]->[d]->[e]->[f]->[g]->h foldr7 :: forall a b c d e f g h. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h -> h) -> h -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> h foldr7 a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h -> h k h z = [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> h go where go :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> h go (a a:[a] as) (b b:[b] bs) (c c:[c] cs) (d d:[d] ds) (e e:[e] es) (f f:[f] fs) (g g:[g] gs) = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h -> h k a a b b c c d d e e f f g g ( [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> h go [a] as [b] bs [c] cs [d] ds [e] es [f] fs [g] gs) go [a] _ [b] _ [c] _ [d] _ [e] _ [f] _ [g] _ = h z foldr4_left :: (a->b->c->d->e->f)-> f->a->([b]->[c]->[d]->e)-> [b]->[c]->[d]->f foldr4_left :: forall a b c d e f. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f) -> f -> a -> ([b] -> [c] -> [d] -> e) -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> f foldr4_left a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f k f _z a a [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> e r (b b:[b] bs) (c c:[c] cs) (d d:[d] ds) = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f k a a b b c c d d ([b] -> [c] -> [d] -> e r [b] bs [c] cs [d] ds) foldr4_left a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f _ f z a _ [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> e _ [b] _ [c] _ [d] _ = f z foldr5_left :: (a->b->c->d->e->f->g)-> g->a->([b]->[c]->[d]->[e]->f)-> [b]->[c]->[d]->[e]->g foldr5_left :: forall a b c d e f g. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g) -> g -> a -> ([b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> f) -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> g foldr5_left a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g k g _z a a [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> f r (b b:[b] bs) (c c:[c] cs) (d d:[d] ds) (e e:[e] es) = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g k a a b b c c d d e e ([b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> f r [b] bs [c] cs [d] ds [e] es) foldr5_left a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g _ g z a _ [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> f _ [b] _ [c] _ [d] _ [e] _ = g z foldr6_left :: (a->b->c->d->e->f->g->h)-> h->a->([b]->[c]->[d]->[e]->[f]->g)-> [b]->[c]->[d]->[e]->[f]->h foldr6_left :: forall a b c d e f g h. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h) -> h -> a -> ([b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> g) -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> h foldr6_left a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h k h _z a a [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> g r (b b:[b] bs) (c c:[c] cs) (d d:[d] ds) (e e:[e] es) (f f:[f] fs) = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h k a a b b c c d d e e f f ([b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> g r [b] bs [c] cs [d] ds [e] es [f] fs) foldr6_left a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h _ h z a _ [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> g _ [b] _ [c] _ [d] _ [e] _ [f] _ = h z foldr7_left :: (a->b->c->d->e->f->g->h->i)-> i->a->([b]->[c]->[d]->[e]->[f]->[g]->h)-> [b]->[c]->[d]->[e]->[f]->[g]->i foldr7_left :: forall a b c d e f g h i. (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h -> i) -> i -> a -> ([b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> h) -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> i foldr7_left a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h -> i k i _z a a [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> h r (b b:[b] bs) (c c:[c] cs) (d d:[d] ds) (e e:[e] es) (f f:[f] fs) (g g:[g] gs) = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h -> i k a a b b c c d d e e f f g g ([b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> h r [b] bs [c] cs [d] ds [e] es [f] fs [g] gs) foldr7_left a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h -> i _ i z a _ [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> h _ [b] _ [c] _ [d] _ [e] _ [f] _ [g] _ = i z {-# RULES "foldr4/left" forall k z (g::forall b.(a->b->b)->b->b). foldr4 k z (build g) = g (foldr4_left k z) (\_ _ _ -> z) "foldr5/left" forall k z (g::forall b.(a->b->b)->b->b). foldr5 k z (build g) = g (foldr5_left k z) (\_ _ _ _ -> z) "foldr6/left" forall k z (g::forall b.(a->b->b)->b->b). foldr6 k z (build g) = g (foldr6_left k z) (\_ _ _ _ _ -> z) "foldr7/left" forall k z (g::forall b.(a->b->b)->b->b). foldr7 k z (build g) = g (foldr7_left k z) (\_ _ _ _ _ _ -> z) "zipWith4" [~1] forall f as bs cs ds. zipWith4 f as bs cs ds = build (\c n -> foldr4 (zipWith4FB c f) n as bs cs ds) "zipWith5" [~1] forall f as bs cs ds es. zipWith5 f as bs cs ds es = build (\c n -> foldr5 (zipWith5FB c f) n as bs cs ds es) "zipWith6" [~1] forall f as bs cs ds es fs. zipWith6 f as bs cs ds es fs = build (\c n -> foldr6 (zipWith6FB c f) n as bs cs ds es fs) "zipWith7" [~1] forall f as bs cs ds es fs gs. zipWith7 f as bs cs ds es fs gs = build (\c n -> foldr7 (zipWith7FB c f) n as bs cs ds es fs gs) "zipWith4List" [1] forall f. foldr4 (zipWith4FB (:) f) [] = zipWith4 f "zipWith5List" [1] forall f. foldr5 (zipWith5FB (:) f) [] = zipWith5 f "zipWith6List" [1] forall f. foldr6 (zipWith6FB (:) f) [] = zipWith6 f "zipWith7List" [1] forall f. foldr7 (zipWith7FB (:) f) [] = zipWith7 f #-} {- Note [Inline @unzipN@ functions] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The inline principle for @unzip{4,5,6,7}@ is the same as 'unzip'/'unzip3' in "GHC.List". The 'unzip'/'unzip3' functions are inlined so that the `foldr` with which they are defined has an opportunity to fuse. As such, since there are not any differences between 2/3-ary 'unzip' and its n-ary counterparts below aside from the number of arguments, the `INLINE` pragma should be replicated in the @unzipN@ functions below as well. -} -- | The 'unzip4' function takes a list of quadruples and returns four -- lists, analogous to 'unzip'. {-# INLINE unzip4 #-} -- Inline so that fusion with `foldr` has an opportunity to fire. -- See Note [Inline @unzipN@ functions] above. unzip4 :: [(a,b,c,d)] -> ([a],[b],[c],[d]) unzip4 :: forall a b c d. [(a, b, c, d)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d]) unzip4 = ((a, b, c, d) -> ([a], [b], [c], [d]) -> ([a], [b], [c], [d])) -> ([a], [b], [c], [d]) -> [(a, b, c, d)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d]) forall a b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b foldr (\(a a,b b,c c,d d) ~([a] as,[b] bs,[c] cs,[d] ds) -> (a aa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] as,b bb -> [b] -> [b] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[b] bs,c cc -> [c] -> [c] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[c] cs,d dd -> [d] -> [d] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[d] ds)) ([],[],[],[]) -- | The 'unzip5' function takes a list of five-tuples and returns five -- lists, analogous to 'unzip'. {-# INLINE unzip5 #-} -- Inline so that fusion with `foldr` has an opportunity to fire. -- See Note [Inline @unzipN@ functions] above. unzip5 :: [(a,b,c,d,e)] -> ([a],[b],[c],[d],[e]) unzip5 :: forall a b c d e. [(a, b, c, d, e)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e]) unzip5 = ((a, b, c, d, e) -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e]) -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e])) -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e]) -> [(a, b, c, d, e)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e]) forall a b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b foldr (\(a a,b b,c c,d d,e e) ~([a] as,[b] bs,[c] cs,[d] ds,[e] es) -> (a aa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] as,b bb -> [b] -> [b] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[b] bs,c cc -> [c] -> [c] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[c] cs,d dd -> [d] -> [d] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[d] ds,e ee -> [e] -> [e] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[e] es)) ([],[],[],[],[]) -- | The 'unzip6' function takes a list of six-tuples and returns six -- lists, analogous to 'unzip'. {-# INLINE unzip6 #-} -- Inline so that fusion with `foldr` has an opportunity to fire. -- See Note [Inline @unzipN@ functions] above. unzip6 :: [(a,b,c,d,e,f)] -> ([a],[b],[c],[d],[e],[f]) unzip6 :: forall a b c d e f. [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f]) unzip6 = ((a, b, c, d, e, f) -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f]) -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f])) -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f]) -> [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f]) forall a b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b foldr (\(a a,b b,c c,d d,e e,f f) ~([a] as,[b] bs,[c] cs,[d] ds,[e] es,[f] fs) -> (a aa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] as,b bb -> [b] -> [b] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[b] bs,c cc -> [c] -> [c] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[c] cs,d dd -> [d] -> [d] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[d] ds,e ee -> [e] -> [e] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[e] es,f ff -> [f] -> [f] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[f] fs)) ([],[],[],[],[],[]) -- | The 'unzip7' function takes a list of seven-tuples and returns -- seven lists, analogous to 'unzip'. {-# INLINE unzip7 #-} -- Inline so that fusion with `foldr` has an opportunity to fire. -- See Note [Inline @unzipN@ functions] above. unzip7 :: [(a,b,c,d,e,f,g)] -> ([a],[b],[c],[d],[e],[f],[g]) unzip7 :: forall a b c d e f g. [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f], [g]) unzip7 = ((a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f], [g]) -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f], [g])) -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f], [g]) -> [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f], [g]) forall a b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b foldr (\(a a,b b,c c,d d,e e,f f,g g) ~([a] as,[b] bs,[c] cs,[d] ds,[e] es,[f] fs,[g] gs) -> (a aa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] as,b bb -> [b] -> [b] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[b] bs,c cc -> [c] -> [c] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[c] cs,d dd -> [d] -> [d] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[d] ds,e ee -> [e] -> [e] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[e] es,f ff -> [f] -> [f] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[f] fs,g gg -> [g] -> [g] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[g] gs)) ([],[],[],[],[],[],[]) -- | The 'deleteFirstsBy' function takes a predicate and two lists and -- returns the first list with the first occurrence of each element of -- the second list removed. This is the non-overloaded version of '(\\)'. -- -- > (\\) == deleteFirstsBy (==) -- -- The second list must be finite, but the first may be infinite. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> deleteFirstsBy (>) [1..10] [3, 4, 5] -- [4,5,6,7,8,9,10] -- -- >>> deleteFirstsBy (/=) [1..10] [1, 3, 5] -- [4,5,6,7,8,9,10] deleteFirstsBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] deleteFirstsBy :: forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] deleteFirstsBy a -> a -> Bool eq = ([a] -> a -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a b. (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b foldl ((a -> [a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> a -> [a] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c flip ((a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> [a] deleteBy a -> a -> Bool eq)) -- | The 'group' function takes a list and returns a list of lists such -- that the concatenation of the result is equal to the argument. Moreover, -- each sublist in the result is non-empty, all elements are equal to the -- first one, and consecutive equal elements of the input end up in the -- same element of the output list. -- -- 'group' is a special case of 'groupBy', which allows the programmer to supply -- their own equality test. -- -- It's often preferable to use @Data.List.NonEmpty.@'Data.List.NonEmpty.group', -- which provides type-level guarantees of non-emptiness of inner lists. -- A common idiom to squash repeating elements 'map' 'head' '.' 'group' -- is better served by -- 'map' @Data.List.NonEmpty.@'Data.List.NonEmpty.head' '.' @Data.List.NonEmpty.@'Data.List.NonEmpty.group' -- because it avoids partial functions. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> group "Mississippi" -- ["M","i","ss","i","ss","i","pp","i"] -- -- >>> group [1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5] -- [[1,1,1],[2,2],[3],[4],[5,5]] group :: Eq a => [a] -> [[a]] group :: forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [[a]] group = (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] groupBy a -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool (==) -- | The 'groupBy' function is the non-overloaded version of 'group'. -- -- When a supplied relation is not transitive, it is important -- to remember that equality is checked against the first element in the group, -- not against the nearest neighbour: -- -- >>> groupBy (\a b -> b - a < 5) [0..19] -- [[0,1,2,3,4],[5,6,7,8,9],[10,11,12,13,14],[15,16,17,18,19]] -- -- It's often preferable to use @Data.List.NonEmpty.@'Data.List.NonEmpty.groupBy', -- which provides type-level guarantees of non-emptiness of inner lists. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> groupBy (/=) [1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 4, 5] -- [[1],[1],[1,2,3],[1,4,4,5]] -- -- >>> groupBy (>) [1, 3, 5, 1, 4, 2, 6, 5, 4] -- [[1],[3],[5,1,4,2],[6,5,4]] -- -- >>> groupBy (const not) [True, False, True, False, False, False, True] -- [[True,False],[True,False,False,False],[True]] groupBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] groupBy :: forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] groupBy a -> a -> Bool _ [] = [] groupBy a -> a -> Bool eq (a x:[a] xs) = (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] ys) [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] groupBy a -> a -> Bool eq [a] zs where ([a] ys,[a] zs) = (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) span (a -> a -> Bool eq a x) [a] xs -- | The 'inits' function returns all initial segments of the argument, -- shortest first. -- -- 'inits' is semantically equivalent to @'map' 'reverse' . 'scanl' ('flip' (:)) []@, -- but under the hood uses a queue to amortize costs of 'reverse'. -- -- ==== __Laziness__ -- -- Note that 'inits' has the following strictness property: -- @inits (xs ++ _|_) = inits xs ++ _|_@ -- -- In particular, -- @inits _|_ = [] : _|_@ -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> inits "abc" -- ["","a","ab","abc"] -- -- >>> inits [] -- [[]] -- -- inits is productive on infinite lists: -- -- >>> take 5 $ inits [1..] -- [[],[1],[1,2],[1,2,3],[1,2,3,4]] inits :: [a] -> [[a]] inits :: forall a. [a] -> [[a]] inits = (SnocBuilder a -> [a]) -> [SnocBuilder a] -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map SnocBuilder a -> [a] forall a. SnocBuilder a -> [a] toListSB ([SnocBuilder a] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [SnocBuilder a]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (SnocBuilder a -> a -> SnocBuilder a) -> SnocBuilder a -> [a] -> [SnocBuilder a] forall b a. (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b] scanl' SnocBuilder a -> a -> SnocBuilder a forall a. SnocBuilder a -> a -> SnocBuilder a snocSB SnocBuilder a forall a. SnocBuilder a emptySB {-# NOINLINE inits #-} -- We do not allow inits to inline, because it plays havoc with Call Arity -- if it fuses with a consumer, and it would generally lead to serious -- loss of sharing if allowed to fuse with a producer. -- | \(\mathcal{O}(n)\). The 'tails' function returns all final segments of the -- argument, longest first. -- -- ==== __Laziness__ -- -- Note that 'tails' has the following strictness property: -- @tails _|_ = _|_ : _|_@ -- -- >>> tails undefined -- [*** Exception: Prelude.undefined -- -- >>> drop 1 (tails [undefined, 1, 2]) -- [[1, 2], [2], []] -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> tails "abc" -- ["abc","bc","c",""] -- -- >>> tails [1, 2, 3] -- [[1,2,3],[2,3],[3],[]] -- -- >>> tails [] -- [[]] tails :: [a] -> [[a]] {-# INLINABLE tails #-} tails :: forall a. [a] -> [[a]] tails [a] lst = (forall b. ([a] -> b -> b) -> b -> b) -> [[a]] forall a. (forall b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> b) -> [a] build (\[a] -> b -> b c b n -> let tailsGo :: [a] -> b tailsGo [a] xs = [a] xs [a] -> b -> b `c` case [a] xs of [] -> b n a _ : [a] xs' -> [a] -> b tailsGo [a] xs' in [a] -> b tailsGo [a] lst) -- | The 'subsequences' function returns the list of all subsequences of the argument. -- -- ==== __Laziness__ -- -- 'subsequences' does not look ahead unless it must: -- -- >>> take 1 (subsequences undefined) -- [[]] -- >>> take 2 (subsequences ('a' : undefined)) -- ["","a"] -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> subsequences "abc" -- ["","a","b","ab","c","ac","bc","abc"] -- -- This function is productive on infinite inputs: -- -- >>> take 8 $ subsequences ['a'..] -- ["","a","b","ab","c","ac","bc","abc"] subsequences :: [a] -> [[a]] subsequences :: forall a. [a] -> [[a]] subsequences [a] xs = [] [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] nonEmptySubsequences [a] xs -- | The 'nonEmptySubsequences' function returns the list of all subsequences of the argument, -- except for the empty list. -- -- >>> nonEmptySubsequences "abc" -- ["a","b","ab","c","ac","bc","abc"] nonEmptySubsequences :: [a] -> [[a]] nonEmptySubsequences :: forall a. [a] -> [[a]] nonEmptySubsequences [] = [] nonEmptySubsequences (a x:[a] xs) = [a x] [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : ([a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b foldr [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] f [] ([a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] nonEmptySubsequences [a] xs) where f :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] f [a] ys [[a]] r = [a] ys [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : (a x a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] ys) [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [[a]] r -- | The 'permutations' function returns the list of all permutations of the argument. -- -- Note that the order of permutations is not lexicographic. -- It satisfies the following property: -- -- > map (take n) (take (product [1..n]) (permutations ([1..n] ++ undefined))) == permutations [1..n] -- -- ==== __Laziness__ -- -- The 'permutations' function is maximally lazy: -- for each @n@, the value of @'permutations' xs@ starts with those permutations -- that permute @'take' n xs@ and keep @'drop' n xs@. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> permutations "abc" -- ["abc","bac","cba","bca","cab","acb"] -- -- >>> permutations [1, 2] -- [[1,2],[2,1]] -- -- >>> permutations [] -- [[]] -- -- This function is productive on infinite inputs: -- -- >>> take 6 $ map (take 3) $ permutations ['a'..] -- ["abc","bac","cba","bca","cab","acb"] permutations :: [a] -> [[a]] -- See https://stackoverflow.com/questions/24484348/what-does-this-list-permutations-implementation-in-haskell-exactly-do/24564307#24564307 -- for the analysis of this rather cryptic implementation. -- Related discussions: -- * https://mail.haskell.org/pipermail/haskell-cafe/2021-December/134920.html -- * https://mail.haskell.org/pipermail/libraries/2007-December/008788.html -- -- Verification of the equivalences of the auxiliary functions with Liquid Haskell: -- https://github.com/ucsd-progsys/liquidhaskell/blob/b86fb5b/tests/ple/pos/Permutations.hs permutations :: forall a. [a] -> [[a]] permutations [a] xs0 = [a] xs0 [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [[a]] perms [a] xs0 [] where -- | @perms ts is@ is equivalent to -- -- > concat -- > [ interleave {(ts!!n)} {(drop (n+1) ts)} xs [] -- > | n <- [0..length ts - 1] -- > , xs <- permutations (reverse (take n ts) ++ is) -- > ] -- -- @{(ts!!n)}@ and @{(drop (n+1) ts)}@ denote the values of variables @t@ and @ts@ -- when they appear free in the definition of @interleave@ and @interleave'@. perms :: forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [[a]] perms :: forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [[a]] perms [] [a] _ = [] perms (a t:[a] ts) [a] is = ([a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b foldr [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] interleave ([a] -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [[a]] perms [a] ts (a ta -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] is)) ([a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] permutations [a] is) where -- @interleave {t} {ts} xs r@ is equivalent to -- -- > [ insertAt n t xs ++ ts | n <- [0..length xs - 1] ] ++ r -- -- where -- -- > insertAt n y xs = take n xs ++ y : drop n xs -- interleave :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] interleave :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] interleave [a] xs [[a]] r = let ([a] _,[[a]] zs) = ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [[a]] -> ([a], [[a]]) forall b. ([a] -> b) -> [a] -> [b] -> ([a], [b]) interleave' [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> a id [a] xs [[a]] r in [[a]] zs -- @interleave' {t} {ts} f ys r@ is equivalent to -- -- > ( ys ++ ts -- > , [ f (insertAt n t ys ++ ts) | n <- [0..length ys - 1] ] ++ r -- > ) -- interleave' :: ([a] -> b) -> [a] -> [b] -> ([a], [b]) interleave' :: forall b. ([a] -> b) -> [a] -> [b] -> ([a], [b]) interleave' [a] -> b _ [] [b] r = ([a] ts, [b] r) interleave' [a] -> b f (a y:[a] ys) [b] r = let ([a] us,[b] zs) = ([a] -> b) -> [a] -> [b] -> ([a], [b]) forall b. ([a] -> b) -> [a] -> [b] -> ([a], [b]) interleave' ([a] -> b f ([a] -> b) -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> b forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a ya -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :)) [a] ys [b] r in (a ya -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] us, [a] -> b f (a ta -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :a ya -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] us) b -> [b] -> [b] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [b] zs) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -- Quick Sort algorithm taken from HBC's QSort library. -- | The 'sort' function implements a stable sorting algorithm. -- It is a special case of 'sortBy', which allows the programmer to supply -- their own comparison function. -- -- Elements are arranged from lowest to highest, keeping duplicates in -- the order they appeared in the input. -- -- The argument must be finite. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> sort [1,6,4,3,2,5] -- [1,2,3,4,5,6] -- -- >>> sort "haskell" -- "aehklls" -- -- >>> import Data.Semigroup(Arg(..)) -- >>> sort [Arg ":)" 0, Arg ":D" 0, Arg ":)" 1, Arg ":3" 0, Arg ":D" 1] -- [Arg ":)" 0,Arg ":)" 1,Arg ":3" 0,Arg ":D" 0,Arg ":D" 1] sort :: (Ord a) => [a] -> [a] -- | The 'sortBy' function is the non-overloaded version of 'sort'. -- The argument must be finite. -- -- The supplied comparison relation is supposed to be reflexive and antisymmetric, -- otherwise, e. g., for @\_ _ -> GT@, the ordered list simply does not exist. -- The relation is also expected to be transitive: if it is not then 'sortBy' -- might fail to find an ordered permutation, even if it exists. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> sortBy (\(a,_) (b,_) -> compare a b) [(2, "world"), (4, "!"), (1, "Hello")] -- [(1,"Hello"),(2,"world"),(4,"!")] sortBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> [a] #if defined(USE_REPORT_PRELUDE) sort = sortBy compare sortBy cmp = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] #else {- GHC's mergesort replaced by a better implementation, 24/12/2009. This code originally contributed to the nhc12 compiler by Thomas Nordin in 2002. Rumoured to have been based on code by Lennart Augustsson, e.g. http://www.mail-archive.com/haskell@haskell.org/msg01822.html and possibly to bear similarities to a 1982 paper by Richard O'Keefe: "A smooth applicative merge sort". Benchmarks show it to be often 2x the speed of the previous implementation. Fixes ticket https://gitlab.haskell.org/ghc/ghc/issues/2143 -} sort :: forall a. Ord a => [a] -> [a] sort = (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> [a] sortBy a -> a -> Ordering forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Ordering compare sortBy :: forall a. (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> [a] sortBy a -> a -> Ordering cmp = [[a]] -> [a] mergeAll ([[a]] -> [a]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [a] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> [[a]] sequences where sequences :: [a] -> [[a]] sequences (a a:a b:[a] xs) | a a a -> a -> Ordering `cmp` a b Ordering -> Ordering -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool == Ordering GT = a -> [a] -> [a] -> [[a]] descending a b [a a] [a] xs | Bool otherwise = a -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [[a]] ascending a b (a aa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) [a] xs sequences [a] xs = [[a] xs] descending :: a -> [a] -> [a] -> [[a]] descending a a [a] as (a b:[a] bs) | a a a -> a -> Ordering `cmp` a b Ordering -> Ordering -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool == Ordering GT = a -> [a] -> [a] -> [[a]] descending a b (a aa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] as) [a] bs descending a a [a] as [a] bs = (a aa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] as)[a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [[a]] sequences [a] bs ascending :: a -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [[a]] ascending a a [a] -> [a] as (a b:[a] bs) | a a a -> a -> Ordering `cmp` a b Ordering -> Ordering -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool /= Ordering GT = a -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [[a]] ascending a b (\[a] ys -> [a] -> [a] as (a aa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] ys)) [a] bs ascending a a [a] -> [a] as [a] bs = let !x :: [a] x = [a] -> [a] as [a a] in [a] x [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [[a]] sequences [a] bs mergeAll :: [[a]] -> [a] mergeAll [[a] x] = [a] x mergeAll [[a]] xs = [[a]] -> [a] mergeAll ([[a]] -> [[a]] mergePairs [[a]] xs) mergePairs :: [[a]] -> [[a]] mergePairs ([a] a:[a] b:[[a]] xs) = let !x :: [a] x = [a] -> [a] -> [a] merge [a] a [a] b in [a] x [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [[a]] -> [[a]] mergePairs [[a]] xs mergePairs [[a]] xs = [[a]] xs merge :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] merge as :: [a] as@(a a:[a] as') bs :: [a] bs@(a b:[a] bs') | a a a -> a -> Ordering `cmp` a b Ordering -> Ordering -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool == Ordering GT = a ba -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] -> [a] -> [a] merge [a] as [a] bs' | Bool otherwise = a aa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] -> [a] -> [a] merge [a] as' [a] bs merge [] [a] bs = [a] bs merge [a] as [] = [a] as {- sortBy cmp l = mergesort cmp l sort l = mergesort compare l Quicksort replaced by mergesort, 14/5/2002. From: Ian Lynagh <igloo@earth.li> I am curious as to why the List.sort implementation in GHC is a quicksort algorithm rather than an algorithm that guarantees n log n time in the worst case? I have attached a mergesort implementation along with a few scripts to time it's performance, the results of which are shown below (* means it didn't finish successfully - in all cases this was due to a stack overflow). If I heap profile the random_list case with only 10000 then I see random_list peaks at using about 2.5M of memory, whereas in the same program using List.sort it uses only 100k. Input style Input length Sort data Sort alg User time stdin 10000 random_list sort 2.82 stdin 10000 random_list mergesort 2.96 stdin 10000 sorted sort 31.37 stdin 10000 sorted mergesort 1.90 stdin 10000 revsorted sort 31.21 stdin 10000 revsorted mergesort 1.88 stdin 100000 random_list sort * stdin 100000 random_list mergesort * stdin 100000 sorted sort * stdin 100000 sorted mergesort * stdin 100000 revsorted sort * stdin 100000 revsorted mergesort * func 10000 random_list sort 0.31 func 10000 random_list mergesort 0.91 func 10000 sorted sort 19.09 func 10000 sorted mergesort 0.15 func 10000 revsorted sort 19.17 func 10000 revsorted mergesort 0.16 func 100000 random_list sort 3.85 func 100000 random_list mergesort * func 100000 sorted sort 5831.47 func 100000 sorted mergesort 2.23 func 100000 revsorted sort 5872.34 func 100000 revsorted mergesort 2.24 mergesort :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> [a] mergesort cmp = mergesort' cmp . map wrap mergesort' :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [[a]] -> [a] mergesort' _ [] = [] mergesort' _ [xs] = xs mergesort' cmp xss = mergesort' cmp (merge_pairs cmp xss) merge_pairs :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] merge_pairs _ [] = [] merge_pairs _ [xs] = [xs] merge_pairs cmp (xs:ys:xss) = merge cmp xs ys : merge_pairs cmp xss merge :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] merge _ [] ys = ys merge _ xs [] = xs merge cmp (x:xs) (y:ys) = case x `cmp` y of GT -> y : merge cmp (x:xs) ys _ -> x : merge cmp xs (y:ys) wrap :: a -> [a] wrap x = [x] OLDER: qsort version -- qsort is stable and does not concatenate. qsort :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] qsort _ [] r = r qsort _ [x] r = x:r qsort cmp (x:xs) r = qpart cmp x xs [] [] r -- qpart partitions and sorts the sublists qpart :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> a -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] qpart cmp x [] rlt rge r = -- rlt and rge are in reverse order and must be sorted with an -- anti-stable sorting rqsort cmp rlt (x:rqsort cmp rge r) qpart cmp x (y:ys) rlt rge r = case cmp x y of GT -> qpart cmp x ys (y:rlt) rge r _ -> qpart cmp x ys rlt (y:rge) r -- rqsort is as qsort but anti-stable, i.e. reverses equal elements rqsort :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] rqsort _ [] r = r rqsort _ [x] r = x:r rqsort cmp (x:xs) r = rqpart cmp x xs [] [] r rqpart :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> a -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] rqpart cmp x [] rle rgt r = qsort cmp rle (x:qsort cmp rgt r) rqpart cmp x (y:ys) rle rgt r = case cmp y x of GT -> rqpart cmp x ys rle (y:rgt) r _ -> rqpart cmp x ys (y:rle) rgt r -} #endif /* USE_REPORT_PRELUDE */ -- | Sort a list by comparing the results of a key function applied to each -- element. @'sortOn' f@ is equivalent to @'sortBy' ('comparing' f)@, but has the -- performance advantage of only evaluating @f@ once for each element in the -- input list. This is called the decorate-sort-undecorate paradigm, or -- <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwartzian_transform Schwartzian transform>. -- -- Elements are arranged from lowest to highest, keeping duplicates in -- the order they appeared in the input. -- -- The argument must be finite. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> sortOn fst [(2, "world"), (4, "!"), (1, "Hello")] -- [(1,"Hello"),(2,"world"),(4,"!")] -- -- >>> sortOn length ["jim", "creed", "pam", "michael", "dwight", "kevin"] -- ["jim","pam","creed","kevin","dwight","michael"] -- -- ==== __Performance notes__ -- -- This function minimises the projections performed, by materialising -- the projections in an intermediate list. -- -- For trivial projections, you should prefer using 'sortBy' with -- 'comparing', for example: -- -- >>> sortBy (comparing fst) [(3, 1), (2, 2), (1, 3)] -- [(1,3),(2,2),(3,1)] -- -- Or, for the exact same API as 'sortOn', you can use `sortBy . comparing`: -- -- >>> (sortBy . comparing) fst [(3, 1), (2, 2), (1, 3)] -- [(1,3),(2,2),(3,1)] -- -- @since base-4.8.0.0 sortOn :: Ord b => (a -> b) -> [a] -> [a] sortOn :: forall b a. Ord b => (a -> b) -> [a] -> [a] sortOn a -> b f = ((b, a) -> a) -> [(b, a)] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (b, a) -> a forall a b. (a, b) -> b snd ([(b, a)] -> [a]) -> ([a] -> [(b, a)]) -> [a] -> [a] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ((b, a) -> (b, a) -> Ordering) -> [(b, a)] -> [(b, a)] forall a. (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> [a] sortBy (((b, a) -> b) -> (b, a) -> (b, a) -> Ordering forall a b. Ord a => (b -> a) -> b -> b -> Ordering comparing (b, a) -> b forall a b. (a, b) -> a fst) ([(b, a)] -> [(b, a)]) -> ([a] -> [(b, a)]) -> [a] -> [(b, a)] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> (b, a)) -> [a] -> [(b, a)] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (\a x -> let y :: b y = a -> b f a x in b y b -> (b, a) -> (b, a) forall a b. a -> b -> b `seq` (b y, a x)) -- | Construct a list from a single element. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> singleton True -- [True] -- -- >>> singleton [1, 2, 3] --[[1,2,3]] -- -- >>> singleton 'c' -- "c" -- -- @since base-4.15.0.0 -- singleton :: a -> [a] singleton :: forall a. a -> [a] singleton a x = [a x] -- | The 'unfoldr' function is a \`dual\' to 'foldr': while 'foldr' -- reduces a list to a summary value, 'unfoldr' builds a list from -- a seed value. The function takes the element and returns 'Nothing' -- if it is done producing the list or returns 'Just' @(a,b)@, in which -- case, @a@ is a prepended to the list and @b@ is used as the next -- element in a recursive call. For example, -- -- > iterate f == unfoldr (\x -> Just (x, f x)) -- -- In some cases, 'unfoldr' can undo a 'foldr' operation: -- -- > unfoldr f' (foldr f z xs) == xs -- -- if the following holds: -- -- > f' (f x y) = Just (x,y) -- > f' z = Nothing -- -- -- ==== __Laziness__ -- -- >>> take 1 (unfoldr (\x -> Just (x, undefined)) 'a') -- "a" -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> unfoldr (\b -> if b == 0 then Nothing else Just (b, b-1)) 10 -- [10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1] -- -- >>> take 10 $ unfoldr (\(x, y) -> Just (x, (y, x + y))) (0, 1) -- [0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,54] -- Note [INLINE unfoldr] -- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -- We treat unfoldr a little differently from some other forms for list fusion -- for two reasons: -- -- 1. We don't want to use a rule to rewrite a basic form to a fusible -- form because this would inline before constant floating. As Simon Peyton- -- Jones and others have pointed out, this could reduce sharing in some cases -- where sharing is beneficial. Thus we simply INLINE it, which is, for -- example, how enumFromTo::Int becomes eftInt. Unfortunately, we don't seem -- to get enough of an inlining discount to get a version of eftInt based on -- unfoldr to inline as readily as the usual one. We know that all the Maybe -- nonsense will go away, but the compiler does not. -- -- 2. The benefit of inlining unfoldr is likely to be huge in many common cases, -- even apart from list fusion. In particular, inlining unfoldr often -- allows GHC to erase all the Maybes. This appears to be critical if unfoldr -- is to be used in high-performance code. A small increase in code size -- in the relatively rare cases when this does not happen looks like a very -- small price to pay. -- -- Doing a back-and-forth dance doesn't seem to accomplish anything if the -- final form has to be inlined in any case. unfoldr :: (b -> Maybe (a, b)) -> b -> [a] {-# INLINE unfoldr #-} -- See Note [INLINE unfoldr] unfoldr :: forall b a. (b -> Maybe (a, b)) -> b -> [a] unfoldr b -> Maybe (a, b) f b b0 = (forall b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> b) -> [a] forall a. (forall b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> b) -> [a] build (\a -> b -> b c b n -> let go :: b -> b go b b = case b -> Maybe (a, b) f b b of Just (a a, b new_b) -> a a a -> b -> b `c` b -> b go b new_b Maybe (a, b) Nothing -> b n in b -> b go b b0) -- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Functions on strings -- | Splits the argument into a list of /lines/ stripped of their terminating -- @\\n@ characters. The @\\n@ terminator is optional in a final non-empty -- line of the argument string. -- -- When the argument string is empty, or ends in a @\\n@ character, it can be -- recovered by passing the result of 'lines' to the 'unlines' function. -- Otherwise, 'unlines' appends the missing terminating @\\n@. This makes -- @unlines . lines@ /idempotent/: -- -- > (unlines . lines) . (unlines . lines) = (unlines . lines) -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> lines "" -- empty input contains no lines -- [] -- -- >>> lines "\n" -- single empty line -- [""] -- -- >>> lines "one" -- single unterminated line -- ["one"] -- -- >>> lines "one\n" -- single non-empty line -- ["one"] -- -- >>> lines "one\n\n" -- second line is empty -- ["one",""] -- -- >>> lines "one\ntwo" -- second line is unterminated -- ["one","two"] -- -- >>> lines "one\ntwo\n" -- two non-empty lines -- ["one","two"] lines :: String -> [String] lines :: [Char] -> [[Char]] lines [Char] "" = [] -- Somehow GHC doesn't detect the selector thunks in the below code, -- so s' keeps a reference to the first line via the pair and we have -- a space leak (cf. #4334). -- So we need to make GHC see the selector thunks with a trick. lines [Char] s = ([Char], [[Char]]) -> [[Char]] forall {a}. (a, [a]) -> [a] cons (case (Char -> Bool) -> [Char] -> ([Char], [Char]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) break (Char -> Char -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool == Char '\n') [Char] s of ([Char] l, [Char] s') -> ([Char] l, case [Char] s' of [] -> [] Char _:[Char] s'' -> [Char] -> [[Char]] lines [Char] s'')) where cons :: (a, [a]) -> [a] cons ~(a h, [a] t) = a h a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] t -- | Appends a @\\n@ character to each input string, then concatenates the -- results. Equivalent to @'foldMap' (\s -> s '++' "\\n")@. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> unlines ["Hello", "World", "!"] -- "Hello\nWorld\n!\n" -- -- Note that @'unlines' '.' 'lines' '/=' 'id'@ when the input is not @\\n@-terminated: -- -- >>> unlines . lines $ "foo\nbar" -- "foo\nbar\n" unlines :: [String] -> String #if defined(USE_REPORT_PRELUDE) unlines = concatMap (++ "\n") #else -- HBC version (stolen) -- here's a more efficient version unlines :: [[Char]] -> [Char] unlines [] = [] unlines ([Char] l:[[Char]] ls) = [Char] l [Char] -> [Char] -> [Char] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ Char '\n' Char -> [Char] -> [Char] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [[Char]] -> [Char] unlines [[Char]] ls #endif -- | 'words' breaks a string up into a list of words, which were delimited -- by white space (as defined by 'isSpace'). This function trims any white spaces -- at the beginning and at the end. -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> words "Lorem ipsum\ndolor" -- ["Lorem","ipsum","dolor"] -- -- >>> words " foo bar " -- ["foo","bar"] words :: String -> [String] {-# NOINLINE [1] words #-} words :: [Char] -> [[Char]] words [Char] s = case (Char -> Bool) -> [Char] -> [Char] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] dropWhile {-partain:Char.-}Char -> Bool isSpace [Char] s of [Char] "" -> [] [Char] s' -> [Char] w [Char] -> [[Char]] -> [[Char]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [Char] -> [[Char]] words [Char] s'' where ([Char] w, [Char] s'') = (Char -> Bool) -> [Char] -> ([Char], [Char]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) break {-partain:Char.-}Char -> Bool isSpace [Char] s' {-# RULES "words" [~1] forall s . words s = build (\c n -> wordsFB c n s) "wordsList" [1] wordsFB (:) [] = words #-} wordsFB :: ([Char] -> b -> b) -> b -> String -> b {-# INLINE [0] wordsFB #-} -- See Note [Inline FB functions] in GHC.Internal.List wordsFB :: forall b. ([Char] -> b -> b) -> b -> [Char] -> b wordsFB [Char] -> b -> b c b n = [Char] -> b go where go :: [Char] -> b go [Char] s = case (Char -> Bool) -> [Char] -> [Char] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] dropWhile Char -> Bool isSpace [Char] s of [Char] "" -> b n [Char] s' -> [Char] w [Char] -> b -> b `c` [Char] -> b go [Char] s'' where ([Char] w, [Char] s'') = (Char -> Bool) -> [Char] -> ([Char], [Char]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) break Char -> Bool isSpace [Char] s' -- | 'unwords' joins words with separating spaces (U+0020 SPACE). -- -- 'unwords' is neither left nor right inverse of 'words': -- -- >>> words (unwords [" "]) -- [] -- >>> unwords (words "foo\nbar") -- "foo bar" -- -- ==== __Examples__ -- -- >>> unwords ["Lorem", "ipsum", "dolor"] -- "Lorem ipsum dolor" -- -- >>> unwords ["foo", "bar", "", "baz"] -- "foo bar baz" unwords :: [String] -> String #if defined(USE_REPORT_PRELUDE) unwords [] = "" unwords ws = foldr1 (\w s -> w ++ ' ':s) ws #else -- Here's a lazier version that can get the last element of a -- _|_-terminated list. {-# NOINLINE [1] unwords #-} unwords :: [[Char]] -> [Char] unwords [] = [Char] "" unwords ([Char] w:[[Char]] ws) = [Char] w [Char] -> [Char] -> [Char] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [[Char]] -> [Char] go [[Char]] ws where go :: [[Char]] -> [Char] go [] = [Char] "" go ([Char] v:[[Char]] vs) = Char ' ' Char -> [Char] -> [Char] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : ([Char] v [Char] -> [Char] -> [Char] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [[Char]] -> [Char] go [[Char]] vs) -- In general, the foldr-based version is probably slightly worse -- than the HBC version, because it adds an extra space and then takes -- it back off again. But when it fuses, it reduces allocation. How much -- depends entirely on the average word length--it's most effective when -- the words are on the short side. {-# RULES "unwords" [~1] forall ws . unwords ws = tailUnwords (foldr unwordsFB "" ws) "unwordsList" [1] forall ws . tailUnwords (foldr unwordsFB "" ws) = unwords ws #-} {-# INLINE [0] tailUnwords #-} tailUnwords :: String -> String tailUnwords :: [Char] -> [Char] tailUnwords [] = [] tailUnwords (Char _:[Char] xs) = [Char] xs {-# INLINE [0] unwordsFB #-} unwordsFB :: String -> String -> String unwordsFB :: [Char] -> [Char] -> [Char] unwordsFB [Char] w [Char] r = Char ' ' Char -> [Char] -> [Char] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [Char] w [Char] -> [Char] -> [Char] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [Char] r #endif {- A "SnocBuilder" is a version of Chris Okasaki's banker's queue that supports toListSB instead of uncons. In single-threaded use, its performance characteristics are similar to John Hughes's functional difference lists, but likely somewhat worse. In heavily persistent settings, however, it does much better, because it takes advantage of sharing. The banker's queue guarantees (amortized) O(1) snoc and O(1) uncons, meaning that we can think of toListSB as an O(1) conversion to a list-like structure a constant factor slower than normal lists--we pay the O(n) cost incrementally as we consume the list. Using functional difference lists, on the other hand, we would have to pay the whole cost up front for each output list. -} {- We store a front list, a rear list, and the length of the queue. Because we only snoc onto the queue and never uncons, we know it's time to rotate when the length of the queue plus 1 is a power of 2. Note that we rely on the value of the length field only for performance. In the unlikely event of overflow, the performance will suffer but the semantics will remain correct. -} data SnocBuilder a = SnocBuilder {-# UNPACK #-} !Word [a] [a] {- Smart constructor that rotates the builder when lp is one minus a power of 2. Does not rotate very small builders because doing so is not worth the trouble. The lp < 255 test goes first because the power-of-2 test gives awful branch prediction for very small n (there are 5 powers of 2 between 1 and 16). Putting the well-predicted lp < 255 test first avoids branching on the power-of-2 test until powers of 2 have become sufficiently rare to be predicted well. -} {-# INLINE sb #-} sb :: Word -> [a] -> [a] -> SnocBuilder a sb :: forall a. Word -> [a] -> [a] -> SnocBuilder a sb Word lp [a] f [a] r | Word lp Word -> Word -> Bool forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Bool < Word 255 Bool -> Bool -> Bool || (Word lp Word -> Word -> Word forall a. Bits a => a -> a -> a .&. (Word lp Word -> Word -> Word forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a + Word 1)) Word -> Word -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool /= Word 0 = Word -> [a] -> [a] -> SnocBuilder a forall a. Word -> [a] -> [a] -> SnocBuilder a SnocBuilder Word lp [a] f [a] r | Bool otherwise = Word -> [a] -> [a] -> SnocBuilder a forall a. Word -> [a] -> [a] -> SnocBuilder a SnocBuilder Word lp ([a] f [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [a] r) [] -- The empty builder emptySB :: SnocBuilder a emptySB :: forall a. SnocBuilder a emptySB = Word -> [a] -> [a] -> SnocBuilder a forall a. Word -> [a] -> [a] -> SnocBuilder a SnocBuilder Word 0 [] [] -- Add an element to the end of a queue. snocSB :: SnocBuilder a -> a -> SnocBuilder a snocSB :: forall a. SnocBuilder a -> a -> SnocBuilder a snocSB (SnocBuilder Word lp [a] f [a] r) a x = Word -> [a] -> [a] -> SnocBuilder a forall a. Word -> [a] -> [a] -> SnocBuilder a sb (Word lp Word -> Word -> Word forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a + Word 1) [a] f (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] r) -- Convert a builder to a list toListSB :: SnocBuilder a -> [a] toListSB :: forall a. SnocBuilder a -> [a] toListSB (SnocBuilder Word _ [a] f [a] r) = [a] f [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [a] r