extensible-effects- An Alternative to Monad Transformers

Safe HaskellTrustworthy
  • Cpp
  • OverlappingInstances
  • UndecidableInstances
  • MonoLocalBinds
  • ScopedTypeVariables
  • TypeFamilies
  • GADTs
  • GADTSyntax
  • PolyKinds
  • DataKinds
  • TypeSynonymInstances
  • FlexibleContexts
  • FlexibleInstances
  • ConstrainedClassMethods
  • MultiParamTypeClasses
  • FunctionalDependencies
  • KindSignatures
  • TypeOperators
  • ExplicitNamespaces
  • ExplicitForAll



Open unions (type-indexed co-products) for extensible effects All operations are constant-time, and there is no Typeable constraint

This is a variation of OpenUion5.hs, which relies on overlapping instances instead of closed type families. Closed type families have their problems: overlapping instances can resolve even for unground types, but closed type families are subject to a strict apartness condition.

This implementation is very similar to OpenUnion1.hs, but without the annoying Typeable constraint. We sort of emulate it:

Our list r of open union components is a small Universe. Therefore, we can use the Typeable-like evidence in that universe. We hence can define

data Union r v where
  Union :: t v -> TRep t r -> Union r v -- t is existential


data TRep t r where
  T0 :: TRep t (t ': r)
  TS :: TRep t r -> TRep (any ': r)

Then Member is a type class that produces TRep Taken literally it doesn't seem much better than OpenUinion41.hs. However, we can cheat and use the index of the type t in the list r as the TRep. (We will need UnsafeCoerce then).

The interface is the same as of other OpenUnion*.hs



data Union r v Source #

The data constructors of Union are not exported

Strong Sum (Existential with the evidence) is an open union t is can be a GADT and hence not necessarily a Functor. Int is the index of t in the list r; that is, the index of t in the universe r

inj :: Member t r => t v -> Union r v Source #

prj :: Member t r => Union r v -> Maybe (t v) Source #

decomp :: Union (t ': r) v -> Either (Union r v) (t v) Source #

class FindElem t r => Member t r where Source #

Minimal complete definition

inj, prj


inj :: t v -> Union r v Source #

prj :: Union r v -> Maybe (t v) Source #


FindElem [* -> *] t r => Member t r Source # 


inj :: t v -> Union * r v Source #

prj :: Union * r v -> Maybe (t v) Source #

class Member t r => SetMember tag t r | tag r -> t Source #

This class is used for emulating monad transformers


(EQU Bool (* -> *) t1 t2 p, MemberU' k p tag t1 ((:) (* -> *) t2 r)) => SetMember k tag t1 ((:) (* -> *) t2 r) Source # 

weaken :: Union r w -> Union (any ': r) w Source #