combinat-0.2.9.0: Generate and manipulate various combinatorial objects.

Math.Combinat.Numbers.Series

Description

Some basic univariate power series expansions. This module is not re-exported by Math.Combinat.

Note: the "convolveWithXXX" functions are much faster than the equivalent (XXX convolve)!

TODO: better names for these functions.

Synopsis

# Trivial series

unitSeries :: Num a => [a] Source #

The series [1,0,0,0,0,...], which is the neutral element for the convolution.

zeroSeries :: Num a => [a] Source #

Constant zero series

constSeries :: Num a => a -> [a] Source #

Power series representing a constant function

idSeries :: Num a => [a] Source #

The power series representation of the identity function x

powerTerm :: Num a => Int -> [a] Source #

The power series representation of x^n

# Basic operations on power series

addSeries :: Num a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

sumSeries :: Num a => [[a]] -> [a] Source #

subSeries :: Num a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

negateSeries :: Num a => [a] -> [a] Source #

scaleSeries :: Num a => a -> [a] -> [a] Source #

mulSeries :: Num a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

A different implementation, taken from:

M. Douglas McIlroy: Power Series, Power Serious

mulSeriesNaive :: Num a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

Multiplication of power series. This implementation is a synonym for convolve

productOfSeries :: Num a => [[a]] -> [a] Source #

# Convolution (product)

convolve :: Num a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

Convolution of series (that is, multiplication of power series). The result is always an infinite list. Warning: This is slow!

convolveMany :: Num a => [[a]] -> [a] Source #

Convolution (= product) of many series. Still slow!

# Reciprocals of general power series

divSeries :: (Eq a, Fractional a) => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

Division of series.

Taken from: M. Douglas McIlroy: Power Series, Power Serious

reciprocalSeries :: (Eq a, Fractional a) => [a] -> [a] Source #

Given a power series, we iteratively compute its multiplicative inverse

integralReciprocalSeries :: (Eq a, Num a) => [a] -> [a] Source #

Given a power series starting with 1, we can compute its multiplicative inverse without divisions.

# Composition of formal power series

composeSeries :: (Eq a, Num a) => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

g composeSeries f is the power series expansion of g(f(x)). This is a synonym for flip substitute.

This implementation is taken from

M. Douglas McIlroy: Power Series, Power Serious

substitute :: (Eq a, Num a) => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

substitute f g is the power series corresponding to g(f(x)). Equivalently, this is the composition of univariate functions (in the "wrong" order).

Note: for this to be meaningful in general (not depending on convergence properties), we need that the constant term of f is zero.

composeSeriesNaive :: (Eq a, Num a) => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

Naive implementation of composeSeries (via substituteNaive)

substituteNaive :: (Eq a, Num a) => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

Naive implementation of substitute

# Lagrange inversions

lagrangeInversion :: (Eq a, Fractional a) => [a] -> [a] Source #

We expect the input series to match (0:a1:_). with a1 nonzero The following is true for the result (at least with exact arithmetic):

substitute f (lagrangeInversion f) == (0 : 1 : repeat 0)
substitute (lagrangeInversion f) f == (0 : 1 : repeat 0)

This implementation is taken from:

M. Douglas McIlroy: Power Series, Power Serious

Coefficients of the Lagrange inversion

integralLagrangeInversionNaive :: (Eq a, Num a) => [a] -> [a] Source #

We expect the input series to match (0:1:_). The following is true for the result (at least with exact arithmetic):

substitute f (integralLagrangeInversion f) == (0 : 1 : repeat 0)
substitute (integralLagrangeInversion f) f == (0 : 1 : repeat 0)

lagrangeInversionNaive :: (Eq a, Fractional a) => [a] -> [a] Source #

Naive implementation of lagrangeInversion

# Differentiation and integration

differentiateSeries :: Num a => [a] -> [a] Source #

integrateSeries :: Fractional a => [a] -> [a] Source #

# Power series expansions of elementary functions

expSeries :: Fractional a => [a] Source #

Power series expansion of exp(x)

cosSeries :: Fractional a => [a] Source #

Power series expansion of cos(x)

sinSeries :: Fractional a => [a] Source #

Power series expansion of sin(x)

cosSeries2 :: Fractional a => [a] Source #

Alternative implementation using differential equations.

Taken from: M. Douglas McIlroy: Power Series, Power Serious

sinSeries2 :: Fractional a => [a] Source #

Alternative implementation using differential equations.

Taken from: M. Douglas McIlroy: Power Series, Power Serious

coshSeries :: Fractional a => [a] Source #

Power series expansion of cosh(x)

sinhSeries :: Fractional a => [a] Source #

Power series expansion of sinh(x)

log1Series :: Fractional a => [a] Source #

Power series expansion of log(1+x)

dyckSeries :: Num a => [a] Source #

Power series expansion of (1-Sqrt[1-4x])/(2x) (the coefficients are the Catalan numbers)

# "Coin" series

coinSeries :: [Int] -> [Integer] Source #

Power series expansion of

1 / ( (1-x^k_1) * (1-x^k_2) * ... * (1-x^k_n) )

Example:

(coinSeries [2,3,5])!!k is the number of ways to pay k dollars with coins of two, three and five dollars.

TODO: better name?

coinSeries' :: Num a => [(a, Int)] -> [a] Source #

Generalization of the above to include coefficients: expansion of

1 / ( (1-a_1*x^k_1) * (1-a_2*x^k_2) * ... * (1-a_n*x^k_n) )

convolveWithCoinSeries' :: Num a => [(a, Int)] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

# Reciprocals of products of polynomials

productPSeries :: [[Int]] -> [Integer] Source #

Convolution of many pseries, that is, the expansion of the reciprocal of a product of polynomials

productPSeries' :: Num a => [[(a, Int)]] -> [a] Source #

The same, with coefficients.

convolveWithProductPSeries' :: Num a => [[(a, Int)]] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

This is the most general function in this module; all the others are special cases of this one.

# Reciprocals of polynomials

pseries :: [Int] -> [Integer] Source #

The power series expansion of

1 / (1 - x^k_1 - x^k_2 - x^k_3 - ... - x^k_n)

convolveWithPSeries :: [Int] -> [Integer] -> [Integer] Source #

Convolve with (the expansion of)

1 / (1 - x^k_1 - x^k_2 - x^k_3 - ... - x^k_n)

pseries' :: Num a => [(a, Int)] -> [a] Source #

The expansion of

1 / (1 - a_1*x^k_1 - a_2*x^k_2 - a_3*x^k_3 - ... - a_n*x^k_n)

convolveWithPSeries' :: Num a => [(a, Int)] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

Convolve with (the expansion of)

1 / (1 - a_1*x^k_1 - a_2*x^k_2 - a_3*x^k_3 - ... - a_n*x^k_n)

convolveWithSignedPSeries :: [(Sign, Int)] -> [Integer] -> [Integer] Source #

Convolve with (the expansion of)

1 / (1 +- x^k_1 +- x^k_2 +- x^k_3 +- ... +- x^k_n)

Should be faster than using convolveWithPSeries'. Note: Plus corresponds to the coefficient -1 in pseries' (since there is a minus sign in the definition there)!