Module      : Z.Data.JSON
Description : Fast JSON serialization/deserialization
Copyright   : (c) Dong Han, 2019
License     : BSD
Maintainer  : winterland1989@gmail.com
Stability   : experimental
Portability : non-portable

Types and functions for working efficiently with JSON data, the design is quite similar to @aeson@ or @json@:

  * Encode to bytes can be done directly via 'EncodeJSON'.
  * Decode are split in two step, first we parse JSON doc into 'Value', then convert to haskell data via 'FromValue'.
  * 'ToValue' are provided so that other doc formats can be easily supported, such as 'YAML'.

= How to use this module.

This module is intended to be used qualified, e.g.

    import qualified Z.Data.JSON as JSON
    import           Z.Data.JSON ((.:), ToValue(..), FromValue(..), EncodeJSON(..))

The easiest way to use the library is to define target data type, deriving 'GHC.Generics.Generic' and following instances:

  * 'FromValue', which provides 'fromValue' to convert 'Value' to Haskell values.
  * 'ToValue', which provides 'ToValue' to convert Haskell values to 'Value'.
  * 'EncodeJSON', which provides 'encodeJSON' to directly write Haskell value into JSON bytes.

The 'Generic' instances convert(encode) Haskell data with following rules:

  * Constructors without payloads are encoded as JSON String, @data T = A | B@ are encoded as @\"A\"@ or @\"B\"@.
  * Single constructor are ingored if there're payloads, @data T = T ...@,  @T@ is ingored:

    * Records are encoded as JSON object. @data T = T{k1 :: .., k2 :: ..}@ are encoded as @{\"k1\":...,\"k2\":...}@.
    * Plain product are encoded as JSON array. @data T = T t1 t2@ are encoded as "[x1,x2]".
    * Single field plain product are encoded as it is, i.e. @data T = T t@ are encoded as \"x\" just like its payload.

  * Multiple constructors are convert to single key JSON object if there're payloads:

    * Records are encoded as JSON object like above. @data T = A | B {k1 :: .., k2 :: ..}@ are encoded as
        @{\"B\":{\"k1\":...,\"k2\":...}}@ in @B .. ..@ case, or @\"A\"@ in @A@ case.
    * Plain product are similar to above, wrappered by an outer single-key object layer marking which constructor.

These rules apply to user defined ADTs, but some built-in instances have different behaviour, namely:

  * @Maybe a@ are encoded as JSON @null@ in 'Nothing' case, or directly encoded to its payload in 'Just' case.
  * @[a]@ are encoded to JSON array, including @[Char]@, i.e. there's no special treatment to 'String'. To get JSON string, use 'T.Text' or 'Z.Data.TextBuilder.Str'.
  * 'NonEmpty', 'Vector', 'PrimVector', 'HashSet', 'FlatSet', 'FlatIntSet' are also encoded to JSON array.
  * 'HashMap', 'FlatMap', 'FlatIntMap' are encoded to JSON object.

There're some modifying options if you providing a custom 'Settings', which allow you to modify field name or constructor
name, but please don't produce control characters during your modification, since we assume field labels and constructor
name won't contain them, thus we can save an extra escaping pass. To use constom 'Settings' just write:

    data T = T {fooBar :: Int, fooQux :: [Int]} deriving (Generic)
    instance ToValue T where toValue = JSON.gToValue JSON.defaultSettings{ JSON.fieldFmt = JSON.snakeCase } . from

    > JSON.toValue (T 0 [1,2,3])
    Object [(\"foo_bar\",Number 0.0),(\"bar_qux\",Array [Number 1.0,Number 2.0,Number 3.0])]

= Write instances manually.

You can write 'ToValue' and 'FromValue' instances by hand if the 'Generic' based one doesn't suit you. Here is an example
similar to aeson's.

    import qualified Z.Data.Text          as T
    import qualified Z.Data.Vector        as V
    import qualified Z.Data.Builder       as B

    data Person = Person { name :: T.Text , age  :: Int } deriving Show

    instance FromValue Person where
        fromValue = JSON.withFlatMapR \"Person\" $ \\ v -> Person
                        \<$\> v .: \"name\"
                        \<*\> v .: \"age\"

    instance ToValue Person where
        toValue (Person n a) = JSON.Object $ V.pack [(\"name\", toValue n),(\"age\", toValue a)]

    instance EncodeJSON Person where
        encodeJSON (Person n a) = B.curly $ do
            B.quotes \"name\" >> B.colon >> encodeJSON n
            B.quotes \"age\" >> B.colon >> encodeJSON a

    > toValue (Person \"Joe\" 12)
    Object [(\"name\",String \"Joe\"),(\"age\",Number 12.0)]
    > JSON.convert' @Person . JSON.Object $ V.pack [(\"name\",JSON.String \"Joe\"),(\"age\",JSON.Number 12.0)]
    Right (Person {name = \"Joe\", age = 12})
    > JSON.encodeText (Person \"Joe\" 12)

The 'Value' type is different from aeson's one in that we use @Vector (Text, Value)@ to represent JSON objects, thus
we can choose different strategies on key duplication, the lookup map type, etc. so instead of a single 'withObject',
we provide 'withHashMap', 'withHashMapR', 'withHashMap' and 'withHashMapR' which use different lookup map type, and different
key order piority. Most of time 'FlatMap' is faster than 'HashMap' since we only use the lookup map once, the cost of
constructing a 'HashMap' is higher. If you want to directly working on key-values, 'withKeyValues' provide key-values
vector access.

There're some useful tools to help write encoding code in "Z.Data.JSON.Builder" module, such as JSON string escaping tool, etc.
If you don't particularly care for fast encoding, you can also use 'toValue' together with value builder, the overhead is usually very small.


module Z.Data.JSON
  ( -- * Encode & Decode
  , decode, decode', decodeChunks, decodeChunks', encodeBytes, encodeText, encodeTextBuilder
    -- * Value type
  , Value(..)
    -- * parse into JSON Value
  , parseValue, parseValue', parseValueChunks, parseValueChunks'
  -- * Convert 'Value' to Haskell data
  , convert, convert', Converter(..), fail', (<?>), prependContext
  , PathElement(..), ConvertError
  , typeMismatch, fromNull, withBool, withScientific, withBoundedScientific, withRealFloat
  , withBoundedIntegral, withText, withArray, withKeyValues, withFlatMap, withFlatMapR
  , withHashMap, withHashMapR, withEmbeddedJSON
  , (.:), (.:?), (.:!), convertField, convertFieldMaybe, convertFieldMaybe'
  -- * FromValue, ToValue & EncodeJSON
  , ToValue(..)
  , FromValue(..)
  , EncodeJSON(..)
  , defaultSettings, Settings(..), snakeCase, trainCase
  , gToValue, gFromValue, gEncodeJSON
  ) where

import Z.Data.JSON.Base
import qualified Z.Data.Text as T
import Data.Char

-- | Snake casing a pascal cased constructor name or camel cased field name, words are always lower cased and separated by an
-- underscore.
snakeCase :: String -> T.Text
{-# INLINE snakeCase #-}
snakeCase :: String -> Text
snakeCase = Char -> String -> Text
symbCase Char

-- | Train casing a pascal cased constructor name or camel cased field name, words are always lower cased and separated by
-- a hyphen.
trainCase :: String -> T.Text
{-# INLINE trainCase #-}
trainCase :: String -> Text
trainCase = Char -> String -> Text
symbCase Char


symbCase :: Char -> String -> T.Text
{-# INLINE symbCase #-}
symbCase :: Char -> String -> Text
symbCase Char
sym =  String -> Text
T.pack (String -> Text) -> (String -> String) -> String -> Text
forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c
. String -> String
go (String -> String) -> (String -> String) -> String -> String
forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c
. (Char -> Char) -> String -> String
forall a. (a -> a) -> [a] -> [a]
applyFirst Char -> Char
    go :: String -> String
go []                       = []
    go (Char
xs) | Char -> Bool
isUpper Char
x = Char
sym Char -> String -> String
forall a. a -> [a] -> [a]
: Char -> Char
toLower Char
x Char -> String -> String
forall a. a -> [a] -> [a]
: String -> String
go String
              | Bool
otherwise = Char
x Char -> String -> String
forall a. a -> [a] -> [a]
: String -> String
go String

    applyFirst :: (a -> a) -> [a] -> [a]
applyFirst a -> a
_ []     = []
    applyFirst a -> a
f (a
xs) = a -> a
f a
xa -> [a] -> [a]
forall a. a -> [a] -> [a]
: [a]