hopenssl-2.2.1: FFI Bindings to OpenSSL's EVP Digest Interface

Safe HaskellNone




This module provides a generic high-level API to the message digest algorithms found in OpenSSL's crypto library. There are two functions of particular interest: digestByName and digest. The former can be used to retrieve an Algorithm, i.e. an OpenSSL object that implements a particular algorithm. That type can then be used to compute actual message digests with the latter function:

>>> import Data.ByteString.Char8 ( pack )
>>> digest (digestByName "md5") (pack "Hello, world.")

Neat pretty-printing can be achieved with toHex, which converts the binary representation of a message digest into the common hexadecimal one:

>>> toHex $ digest (digestByName "md5") (pack "Hello, world.")
>>> toHex $ digest (digestByName "sha1") (pack "Hello, world.")

The precise set of available digest algorithms provided by OpenSSL depends on the version of the library installed into the system, obviously, but it's reasonable to expect the following algorithms to be present: MD5, RIPEMD160, SHA1, SHA224, SHA256, SHA384, and SHA512. If an algorithm is not available, digestByName will throw an DigestAlgorithmNotAvailableInOpenSSL exception. If you don't like exceptions, use the tamer digestByName' variant:

>>> digestByName' "i bet this algorithm won't exist"

Algorithm is an instance of IsString, so with the proper GHC extensions enabled it's possible to simplify the call to digest even further:

>>> :set -XOverloadedStrings
>>> toHex $ digest "sha256" (pack "The 'Through the Universe' podcast rules.")

Last but not least, digest is actually a class method of Digestable, which collects things we can compute digests of. The defaults are conservative, i.e. we support all things that correspond roughly to C's construct of "void pointer plus a length". digest can use with any of the following signatures:

>>> let shape1 = digest :: Algorithm -> (Ptr (),    CSize) -> MessageDigest
>>> let shape2 = digest :: Algorithm -> (Ptr Word8, CSize) -> MessageDigest
>>> let shape3 = digest :: Algorithm -> (Ptr Word8, CUInt) -> MessageDigest
>>> let shape4 = digest :: Algorithm -> (Ptr (),    Int)   -> MessageDigest
>>> let shape5 = digest :: Algorithm -> StrictByteString   -> MessageDigest
>>> let shape6 = digest :: Algorithm -> LazyByteString     -> MessageDigest

StrictByteString and LazyByteString are also instances of IsString and therefore subject to implicit construction from string literals:

>>> shape5 "sha256" "hello" == shape6 "sha256" "hello"

Note that this code offers no overloaded digest version for String, because that function would produce non-deterministic results for Unicode characters. There is an instance for [Word8], though, so strings can be hashed after a proper encoding has been applied. For those who don't care about determinism, there is the following specialized function:

>>> toHex $ digestString "md5" "no Digestable instance for this sucker"

If you don't mind orphaned instances, however, feel free to shoot yourself in the foot:

>>> :set -XFlexibleInstances
>>> instance Digestable String where updateChunk ctx str = withCStringLen str (updateChunk ctx)
>>> toHex $ digest "sha256" ("now we can hash strings" :: String)


Generic digest API

type MessageDigest = StrictByteString Source #

A message digest is essentially an array of Word8 octets.

digest :: Digestable a => Algorithm -> a -> MessageDigest Source #

Compute the given message digest of any Digestable thing, i.e. any type that can be converted efficiently and unambiguously into a continuous memory buffer or a sequence of continuous memory buffers. Note that String does not have that property, because the binary representation chosen for Unicode characters during the marshaling process is determined by the system's locale and is therefore non-deterministic.

class Digestable a where Source #

A class of things that can be part of a digest computations. By default, we define instances only for various representations of plain memory buffers, but in theory that class can be extended to contain all kinds of complex data types.

Minimal complete definition



updateChunk :: Context -> a -> IO () Source #

digestByName :: String -> Algorithm Source #

Look up a digest algorithm engine by name. Algorithms usually offered by OpenSSL are "md2", "md5", "sha1", "mdc2", "ripemd160", "blake2b512", "blake2s256", "sha224", "sha256", "sha384", and "sha512", but the exact set may vary between platforms. Throws UnknownAlgorithm if the requested algorithm is not known.

digestByName' :: String -> Maybe Algorithm Source #

Variant of digestByName that signals failure by evaluating to Nothing rather than failing.

>>> digestByName' "sha256" == Just (digestByName "sha256")
>>> digestByName' "Guess what?" :: Maybe Algorithm

data Algorithm Source #

An opaque handle into OpenSSL's collection of message digest algorithms. Use digestByName to look up any of the available algorithms by name. For the sake of convenience, Algorithm is an instance of IsString so that the compiler can transparently map String literals to algorithms via fromString if the XOverloadedStrings extension is enabled.

>>> fromString "sha256" == digestByName "sha256"

Special instances

digestString :: Algorithm -> String -> MessageDigest Source #

We do not define a Digestable instance for String, because there is no one obviously correct way to encode Unicode characters for purposes of calculating a digest. We have, however, this specialized function which computes a digest over a String by means of withCStrinLen. This means that the representation of Unicode characters depends on the process locale a.k.a. it's non-deterministc!

>>> toHex $ digestString (digestByName "sha1") "Hello, world."

Helper Types and Functions

toHex :: MessageDigest -> StrictByteString Source #

Pretty-print a given message digest from binary into hexadecimal representation.

>>> toHex (Data.ByteString.pack [0..15])

type StrictByteString = ByteString Source #

Synonym for the strict ByteString variant to improve readability.

type LazyByteString = ByteString Source #

Synonym for the lazy ByteString variant to improve readability.