{-
(c) The University of Glasgow 2006
(c) The GRASP/AQUA Project, Glasgow University, 1992-1998
Arity and eta expansion
-}
{-# LANGUAGE CPP #-}
{-# OPTIONS_GHC -Wno-incomplete-record-updates #-}
-- | Arity and eta expansion
module GHC.Core.Opt.Arity
( manifestArity, joinRhsArity, exprArity, typeArity
, exprEtaExpandArity, findRhsArity
, etaExpand, etaExpandAT
, exprBotStrictness_maybe
-- ** ArityType
, ArityType(..), mkBotArityType, mkTopArityType, expandableArityType
, arityTypeArity, maxWithArity, idArityType
-- ** Join points
, etaExpandToJoinPoint, etaExpandToJoinPointRule
-- ** Coercions and casts
, pushCoArg, pushCoArgs, pushCoValArg, pushCoTyArg
, pushCoercionIntoLambda, pushCoDataCon, collectBindersPushingCo
)
where
#include "HsVersions.h"
import GHC.Prelude
import GHC.Driver.Ppr
import GHC.Core
import GHC.Core.FVs
import GHC.Core.Utils
import GHC.Types.Demand
import GHC.Types.Var
import GHC.Types.Var.Env
import GHC.Types.Id
-- We have two sorts of substitution:
-- GHC.Core.Subst.Subst, and GHC.Core.TyCo.TCvSubst
-- Both have substTy, substCo Hence need for qualification
import GHC.Core.Subst as Core
import GHC.Core.Type as Type
import GHC.Core.Coercion as Type
import GHC.Core.DataCon
import GHC.Core.TyCon ( tyConArity )
import GHC.Core.TyCon.RecWalk ( initRecTc, checkRecTc )
import GHC.Core.Predicate ( isDictTy )
import GHC.Core.Multiplicity
import GHC.Types.Var.Set
import GHC.Types.Basic
import GHC.Types.Tickish
import GHC.Builtin.Uniques
import GHC.Driver.Session ( DynFlags, GeneralFlag(..), gopt )
import GHC.Utils.Outputable
import GHC.Utils.Panic
import GHC.Data.FastString
import GHC.Data.Pair
import GHC.Utils.Misc
{-
************************************************************************
* *
manifestArity and exprArity
* *
************************************************************************
exprArity is a cheap-and-cheerful version of exprEtaExpandArity.
It tells how many things the expression can be applied to before doing
any work. It doesn't look inside cases, lets, etc. The idea is that
exprEtaExpandArity will do the hard work, leaving something that's easy
for exprArity to grapple with. In particular, Simplify uses exprArity to
compute the ArityInfo for the Id.
Originally I thought that it was enough just to look for top-level lambdas, but
it isn't. I've seen this
foo = PrelBase.timesInt
We want foo to get arity 2 even though the eta-expander will leave it
unchanged, in the expectation that it'll be inlined. But occasionally it
isn't, because foo is blacklisted (used in a rule).
Similarly, see the ok_note check in exprEtaExpandArity. So
f = __inline_me (\x -> e)
won't be eta-expanded.
And in any case it seems more robust to have exprArity be a bit more intelligent.
But note that (\x y z -> f x y z)
should have arity 3, regardless of f's arity.
-}
manifestArity :: CoreExpr -> Arity
-- ^ manifestArity sees how many leading value lambdas there are,
-- after looking through casts
manifestArity (Lam v e) | isId v = 1 + manifestArity e
| otherwise = manifestArity e
manifestArity (Tick t e) | not (tickishIsCode t) = manifestArity e
manifestArity (Cast e _) = manifestArity e
manifestArity _ = 0
joinRhsArity :: CoreExpr -> JoinArity
-- Join points are supposed to have manifestly-visible
-- lambdas at the top: no ticks, no casts, nothing
-- Moreover, type lambdas count in JoinArity
joinRhsArity (Lam _ e) = 1 + joinRhsArity e
joinRhsArity _ = 0
---------------
exprArity :: CoreExpr -> Arity
-- ^ An approximate, fast, version of 'exprEtaExpandArity'
exprArity e = go e
where
go (Var v) = idArity v
go (Lam x e) | isId x = go e + 1
| otherwise = go e
go (Tick t e) | not (tickishIsCode t) = go e
go (Cast e co) = trim_arity (go e) (coercionRKind co)
-- Note [exprArity invariant]
go (App e (Type _)) = go e
go (App f a) | exprIsTrivial a = (go f - 1) `max` 0
-- See Note [exprArity for applications]
-- NB: coercions count as a value argument
go _ = 0
trim_arity :: Arity -> Type -> Arity
trim_arity arity ty = arity `min` length (typeArity ty)
---------------
typeArity :: Type -> [OneShotInfo]
-- How many value arrows are visible in the type?
-- We look through foralls, and newtypes
-- See Note [exprArity invariant]
typeArity ty
= go initRecTc ty
where
go rec_nts ty
| Just (_, ty') <- splitForAllTyCoVar_maybe ty
= go rec_nts ty'
| Just (_,arg,res) <- splitFunTy_maybe ty
= typeOneShot arg : go rec_nts res
| Just (tc,tys) <- splitTyConApp_maybe ty
, Just (ty', _) <- instNewTyCon_maybe tc tys
, Just rec_nts' <- checkRecTc rec_nts tc -- See Note [Expanding newtypes]
-- in GHC.Core.TyCon
-- , not (isClassTyCon tc) -- Do not eta-expand through newtype classes
-- -- See Note [Newtype classes and eta expansion]
-- (no longer required)
= go rec_nts' ty'
-- Important to look through non-recursive newtypes, so that, eg
-- (f x) where f has arity 2, f :: Int -> IO ()
-- Here we want to get arity 1 for the result!
--
-- AND through a layer of recursive newtypes
-- e.g. newtype Stream m a b = Stream (m (Either b (a, Stream m a b)))
| otherwise
= []
---------------
exprBotStrictness_maybe :: CoreExpr -> Maybe (Arity, StrictSig)
-- A cheap and cheerful function that identifies bottoming functions
-- and gives them a suitable strictness signatures. It's used during
-- float-out
exprBotStrictness_maybe e
= case getBotArity (arityType botStrictnessArityEnv e) of
Nothing -> Nothing
Just ar -> Just (ar, sig ar)
where
sig ar = mkClosedStrictSig (replicate ar topDmd) botDiv
{-
Note [exprArity invariant]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
exprArity has the following invariants:
(1) If typeArity (exprType e) = n,
then manifestArity (etaExpand e n) = n
That is, etaExpand can always expand as much as typeArity says
So the case analysis in etaExpand and in typeArity must match
(2) exprArity e <= typeArity (exprType e)
(3) Hence if (exprArity e) = n, then manifestArity (etaExpand e n) = n
That is, if exprArity says "the arity is n" then etaExpand really
can get "n" manifest lambdas to the top.
Why is this important? Because
- In GHC.Iface.Tidy we use exprArity to fix the *final arity* of
each top-level Id, and in
- In CorePrep we use etaExpand on each rhs, so that the visible lambdas
actually match that arity, which in turn means
that the StgRhs has the right number of lambdas
An alternative would be to do the eta-expansion in GHC.Iface.Tidy, at least
for top-level bindings, in which case we would not need the trim_arity
in exprArity. That is a less local change, so I'm going to leave it for today!
Note [Newtype classes and eta expansion]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
NB: this nasty special case is no longer required, because
for newtype classes we don't use the class-op rule mechanism
at all. See Note [Single-method classes] in GHC.Tc.TyCl.Instance. SLPJ May 2013
-------- Old out of date comments, just for interest -----------
We have to be careful when eta-expanding through newtypes. In general
it's a good idea, but annoyingly it interacts badly with the class-op
rule mechanism. Consider
class C a where { op :: a -> a }
instance C b => C [b] where
op x = ...
These translate to
co :: forall a. (a->a) ~ C a
$copList :: C b -> [b] -> [b]
$copList d x = ...
$dfList :: C b -> C [b]
{-# DFunUnfolding = [$copList] #-}
$dfList d = $copList d |> co@[b]
Now suppose we have:
dCInt :: C Int
blah :: [Int] -> [Int]
blah = op ($dfList dCInt)
Now we want the built-in op/$dfList rule will fire to give
blah = $copList dCInt
But with eta-expansion 'blah' might (and in #3772, which is
slightly more complicated, does) turn into
blah = op (\eta. ($dfList dCInt |> sym co) eta)
and now it is *much* harder for the op/$dfList rule to fire, because
exprIsConApp_maybe won't hold of the argument to op. I considered
trying to *make* it hold, but it's tricky and I gave up.
The test simplCore/should_compile/T3722 is an excellent example.
-------- End of old out of date comments, just for interest -----------
Note [exprArity for applications]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When we come to an application we check that the arg is trivial.
eg f (fac x) does not have arity 2,
even if f has arity 3!
* We require that is trivial rather merely cheap. Suppose f has arity 2.
Then f (Just y)
has arity 0, because if we gave it arity 1 and then inlined f we'd get
let v = Just y in \w.
which has arity 0. And we try to maintain the invariant that we don't
have arity decreases.
* The `max 0` is important! (\x y -> f x) has arity 2, even if f is
unknown, hence arity 0
************************************************************************
* *
Computing the "arity" of an expression
* *
************************************************************************
Note [Definition of arity]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The "arity" of an expression 'e' is n if
applying 'e' to *fewer* than n *value* arguments
converges rapidly
Or, to put it another way
there is no work lost in duplicating the partial
application (e x1 .. x(n-1))
In the divergent case, no work is lost by duplicating because if the thing
is evaluated once, that's the end of the program.
Or, to put it another way, in any context C
C[ (\x1 .. xn. e x1 .. xn) ]
is as efficient as
C[ e ]
It's all a bit more subtle than it looks:
Note [One-shot lambdas]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Consider one-shot lambdas
let x = expensive in \y z -> E
We want this to have arity 1 if the \y-abstraction is a 1-shot lambda.
Note [Dealing with bottom]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
A Big Deal with computing arities is expressions like
f = \x -> case x of
True -> \s -> e1
False -> \s -> e2
This happens all the time when f :: Bool -> IO ()
In this case we do eta-expand, in order to get that \s to the
top, and give f arity 2.
This isn't really right in the presence of seq. Consider
(f bot) `seq` 1
This should diverge! But if we eta-expand, it won't. We ignore this
"problem" (unless -fpedantic-bottoms is on), because being scrupulous
would lose an important transformation for many programs. (See
#5587 for an example.)
Consider also
f = \x -> error "foo"
Here, arity 1 is fine. But if it is
f = \x -> case x of
True -> error "foo"
False -> \y -> x+y
then we want to get arity 2. Technically, this isn't quite right, because
(f True) `seq` 1
should diverge, but it'll converge if we eta-expand f. Nevertheless, we
do so; it improves some programs significantly, and increasing convergence
isn't a bad thing. Hence the ABot/ATop in ArityType.
So these two transformations aren't always the Right Thing, and we
have several tickets reporting unexpected behaviour resulting from
this transformation. So we try to limit it as much as possible:
(1) Do NOT move a lambda outside a known-bottom case expression
case undefined of { (a,b) -> \y -> e }
This showed up in #5557
(2) Do NOT move a lambda outside a case unless
(a) The scrutinee is ok-for-speculation, or
(b) more liberally: the scrutinee is cheap (e.g. a variable), and
-fpedantic-bottoms is not enforced (see #2915 for an example)
Of course both (1) and (2) are readily defeated by disguising the bottoms.
4. Note [Newtype arity]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Non-recursive newtypes are transparent, and should not get in the way.
We do (currently) eta-expand recursive newtypes too. So if we have, say
newtype T = MkT ([T] -> Int)
Suppose we have
e = coerce T f
where f has arity 1. Then: etaExpandArity e = 1;
that is, etaExpandArity looks through the coerce.
When we eta-expand e to arity 1: eta_expand 1 e T
we want to get: coerce T (\x::[T] -> (coerce ([T]->Int) e) x)
HOWEVER, note that if you use coerce bogusly you can ge
coerce Int negate
And since negate has arity 2, you might try to eta expand. But you can't
decompose Int to a function type. Hence the final case in eta_expand.
Note [The state-transformer hack]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Suppose we have
f = e
where e has arity n. Then, if we know from the context that f has
a usage type like
t1 -> ... -> tn -1-> t(n+1) -1-> ... -1-> tm -> ...
then we can expand the arity to m. This usage type says that
any application (x e1 .. en) will be applied to uniquely to (m-n) more args
Consider f = \x. let y =
in case x of
True -> foo
False -> \(s:RealWorld) -> e
where foo has arity 1. Then we want the state hack to
apply to foo too, so we can eta expand the case.
Then we expect that if f is applied to one arg, it'll be applied to two
(that's the hack -- we don't really know, and sometimes it's false)
See also Id.isOneShotBndr.
Note [State hack and bottoming functions]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
It's a terrible idea to use the state hack on a bottoming function.
Here's what happens (#2861):
f :: String -> IO T
f = \p. error "..."
Eta-expand, using the state hack:
f = \p. (\s. ((error "...") |> g1) s) |> g2
g1 :: IO T ~ (S -> (S,T))
g2 :: (S -> (S,T)) ~ IO T
Extrude the g2
f' = \p. \s. ((error "...") |> g1) s
f = f' |> (String -> g2)
Discard args for bottomming function
f' = \p. \s. ((error "...") |> g1 |> g3
g3 :: (S -> (S,T)) ~ (S,T)
Extrude g1.g3
f'' = \p. \s. (error "...")
f' = f'' |> (String -> S -> g1.g3)
And now we can repeat the whole loop. Aargh! The bug is in applying the
state hack to a function which then swallows the argument.
This arose in another guise in #3959. Here we had
catch# (throw exn >> return ())
Note that (throw :: forall a e. Exn e => e -> a) is called with [a = IO ()].
After inlining (>>) we get
catch# (\_. throw {IO ()} exn)
We must *not* eta-expand to
catch# (\_ _. throw {...} exn)
because 'catch#' expects to get a (# _,_ #) after applying its argument to
a State#, not another function!
In short, we use the state hack to allow us to push let inside a lambda,
but not to introduce a new lambda.
Note [ArityType]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
ArityType is the result of a compositional analysis on expressions,
from which we can decide the real arity of the expression (extracted
with function exprEtaExpandArity).
We use the following notation:
at ::= \o1..on.div
div ::= T | x | ⊥
o ::= ? | 1
And omit the \. if n = 0. Examples:
\?11.T stands for @AT [NoOneShotInfo,OneShotLam,OneShotLam] topDiv@
⊥ stands for @AT [] botDiv@
See the 'Outputable' instance for more information. It's pretty simple.
Here is what the fields mean. If an arbitrary expression 'f' has
ArityType 'at', then
* If @at = AT [o1,..,on] botDiv@ (notation: \o1..on.⊥), then @f x1..xn@
definitely diverges. Partial applications to fewer than n args may *or
may not* diverge.
We allow ourselves to eta-expand bottoming functions, even
if doing so may lose some `seq` sharing,
let x = in \y. error (g x y)
==> \y. let x = in error (g x y)
* If @at = AT [o1,..,on] topDiv@ (notation: \o1..on.T), then expanding 'f'
to @\x1..xn. f x1..xn@ loses no sharing, assuming the calls of f respect
the one-shot-ness o1..on of its definition.
NB 'f' is an arbitrary expression, eg @f = g e1 e2@. This 'f' can have
arity type @AT oss _@, with @length oss > 0@, only if e1 e2 are themselves
cheap.
* In both cases, @f@, @f x1@, ... @f x1 ... x(n-1)@ are definitely
really functions, or bottom, but *not* casts from a data type, in
at least one case branch. (If it's a function in one case branch but
an unsafe cast from a data type in another, the program is bogus.)
So eta expansion is dynamically ok; see Note [State hack and
bottoming functions], the part about catch#
Example:
f = \x\y. let v = in
\s(one-shot) \t(one-shot). blah
'f' has arity type \??11.T
The one-shot-ness means we can, in effect, push that
'let' inside the \st.
Suppose f = \xy. x+y
Then f :: \??.T
f v :: \?.T
f :: T
-}
-- | The analysis lattice of arity analysis. It is isomorphic to
--
-- @
-- data ArityType'
-- = AEnd Divergence
-- | ALam OneShotInfo ArityType'
-- @
--
-- Which is easier to display the Hasse diagram for:
--
-- @
-- ALam OneShotLam at
-- |
-- AEnd topDiv
-- |
-- ALam NoOneShotInfo at
-- |
-- AEnd exnDiv
-- |
-- AEnd botDiv
-- @
--
-- where the @at@ fields of @ALam@ are inductively subject to the same order.
-- That is, @ALam os at1 < ALam os at2@ iff @at1 < at2@.
--
-- Why the strange Top element? See Note [Combining case branches].
--
-- We rely on this lattice structure for fixed-point iteration in
-- 'findRhsArity'. For the semantics of 'ArityType', see Note [ArityType].
data ArityType
= AT ![OneShotInfo] !Divergence
-- ^ @AT oss div@ means this value can safely be eta-expanded @length oss@
-- times, provided use sites respect the 'OneShotInfo's in @oss@.
-- A 'OneShotLam' annotation can come from two sources:
-- * The user annotated a lambda as one-shot with 'GHC.Exts.oneShot'
-- * It's from a lambda binder of a type affected by `-fstate-hack`.
-- See 'idStateHackOneShotInfo'.
-- In both cases, 'OneShotLam' should win over 'NoOneShotInfo', see
-- Note [Combining case branches].
--
-- If @div@ is dead-ending ('isDeadEndDiv'), then application to
-- @length os@ arguments will surely diverge, similar to the situation
-- with 'DmdType'.
deriving Eq
-- | This is the BNF of the generated output:
--
-- @
-- @
--
-- We format
-- @AT [o1,..,on] topDiv@ as @\o1..on.T@ and
-- @AT [o1,..,on] botDiv@ as @\o1..on.⊥@, respectively.
-- More concretely, @AT [NOI,OS,OS] topDiv@ is formatted as @\?11.T@.
-- If the one-shot info is empty, we omit the leading @\.@.
instance Outputable ArityType where
ppr (AT oss div)
| null oss = pp_div div
| otherwise = char '\\' <> hcat (map pp_os oss) <> dot <> pp_div div
where
pp_div Diverges = char '⊥'
pp_div ExnOrDiv = char 'x'
pp_div Dunno = char 'T'
pp_os OneShotLam = char '1'
pp_os NoOneShotInfo = char '?'
mkBotArityType :: [OneShotInfo] -> ArityType
mkBotArityType oss = AT oss botDiv
botArityType :: ArityType
botArityType = mkBotArityType []
mkTopArityType :: [OneShotInfo] -> ArityType
mkTopArityType oss = AT oss topDiv
topArityType :: ArityType
topArityType = mkTopArityType []
-- | The number of value args for the arity type
arityTypeArity :: ArityType -> Arity
arityTypeArity (AT oss _) = length oss
-- | True <=> eta-expansion will add at least one lambda
expandableArityType :: ArityType -> Bool
expandableArityType at = arityTypeArity at /= 0
-- | See Note [Dead ends] in "GHC.Types.Demand".
-- Bottom implies a dead end.
isDeadEndArityType :: ArityType -> Bool
isDeadEndArityType (AT _ div) = isDeadEndDiv div
-- | Expand a non-bottoming arity type so that it has at least the given arity.
maxWithArity :: ArityType -> Arity -> ArityType
maxWithArity at@(AT oss div) !ar
| isDeadEndArityType at = at
| oss `lengthAtLeast` ar = at
| otherwise = AT (take ar $ oss ++ repeat NoOneShotInfo) div
-- | Trim an arity type so that it has at most the given arity.
-- Any excess 'OneShotInfo's are truncated to 'topDiv', even if they end in
-- 'ABot'.
minWithArity :: ArityType -> Arity -> ArityType
minWithArity at@(AT oss _) ar
| oss `lengthAtMost` ar = at
| otherwise = AT (take ar oss) topDiv
takeWhileOneShot :: ArityType -> ArityType
takeWhileOneShot (AT oss div)
| isDeadEndDiv div = AT (takeWhile isOneShotInfo oss) topDiv
| otherwise = AT (takeWhile isOneShotInfo oss) div
-- | The Arity returned is the number of value args the
-- expression can be applied to without doing much work
exprEtaExpandArity :: DynFlags -> CoreExpr -> ArityType
-- exprEtaExpandArity is used when eta expanding
-- e ==> \xy -> e x y
exprEtaExpandArity dflags e = arityType (etaExpandArityEnv dflags) e
getBotArity :: ArityType -> Maybe Arity
-- Arity of a divergent function
getBotArity (AT oss div)
| isDeadEndDiv div = Just $ length oss
| otherwise = Nothing
----------------------
findRhsArity :: DynFlags -> Id -> CoreExpr -> Arity -> ArityType
-- This implements the fixpoint loop for arity analysis
-- See Note [Arity analysis]
-- If findRhsArity e = (n, is_bot) then
-- (a) any application of e to (\x1..xn. e x1 .. xn)
-- (b) if is_bot=True, then e applied to n args is guaranteed bottom
findRhsArity dflags bndr rhs old_arity
= go 0 botArityType
-- We always do one step, but usually that produces a result equal to
-- old_arity, and then we stop right away, because old_arity is assumed
-- to be sound. In other words, arities should never decrease.
-- Result: the common case is that there is just one iteration
where
go :: Int -> ArityType -> ArityType
go !n cur_at@(AT oss div)
| not (isDeadEndDiv div) -- the "stop right away" case
, length oss <= old_arity = cur_at -- from above
| next_at == cur_at = cur_at
| otherwise =
-- Warn if more than 2 iterations. Why 2? See Note [Exciting arity]
WARN( debugIsOn && n > 2, text "Exciting arity"
$$ nest 2 (
ppr bndr <+> ppr cur_at <+> ppr next_at
$$ ppr rhs) )
go (n+1) next_at
where
next_at = step cur_at
step :: ArityType -> ArityType
step at = -- pprTrace "step" (ppr bndr <+> ppr at <+> ppr (arityType env rhs)) $
arityType env rhs
where
env = extendSigEnv (findRhsArityEnv dflags) bndr at
{-
Note [Arity analysis]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The motivating example for arity analysis is this:
f = \x. let g = f (x+1)
in \y. ...g...
What arity does f have? Really it should have arity 2, but a naive
look at the RHS won't see that. You need a fixpoint analysis which
says it has arity "infinity" the first time round.
This example happens a lot; it first showed up in Andy Gill's thesis,
fifteen years ago! It also shows up in the code for 'rnf' on lists
in #4138.
We do the necessary, quite simple fixed-point iteration in 'findRhsArity',
which assumes for a single binding 'ABot' on the first run and iterates
until it finds a stable arity type. Two wrinkles
* We often have to ask (see the Case or Let case of 'arityType') whether some
expression is cheap. In the case of an application, that depends on the arity
of the application head! That's why we have our own version of 'exprIsCheap',
'myExprIsCheap', that will integrate the optimistic arity types we have on
f and g into the cheapness check.
* Consider this (#18793)
go = \ds. case ds of
[] -> id
(x:ys) -> let acc = go ys in
case blah of
True -> acc
False -> \ x1 -> acc (negate x1)
We must propagate go's optimistically large arity to @acc@, so that the
tail call to @acc@ in the True branch has sufficient arity. This is done
by the 'am_sigs' field in 'FindRhsArity', and 'lookupSigEnv' in the Var case
of 'arityType'.
Note [Exciting Arity]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The fixed-point iteration in 'findRhsArity' stabilises very quickly in almost
all cases. To get notified of cases where we need an usual number of iterations,
we emit a warning in debug mode, so that we can investigate and make sure that
we really can't do better. It's a gross hack, but catches real bugs (#18870).
Now, which number is "unusual"? We pick n > 2. Here's a pretty common and
expected example that takes two iterations and would ruin the specificity
of the warning (from T18937):
f :: [Int] -> Int -> Int
f [] = id
f (x:xs) = let y = sum [0..x]
in \z -> f xs (y + z)
Fixed-point iteration starts with arity type ⊥ for f. After the first
iteration, we get arity type \??.T, e.g. arity 2, because we unconditionally
'floatIn' the let-binding (see its bottom case). After the second iteration,
we get arity type \?.T, e.g. arity 1, because now we are no longer allowed
to floatIn the non-cheap let-binding. Which is all perfectly benign, but
means we do two iterations (well, actually 3 'step's to detect we are stable)
and don't want to emit the warning.
Note [Eta expanding through dictionaries]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If the experimental -fdicts-cheap flag is on, we eta-expand through
dictionary bindings. This improves arities. Thereby, it also
means that full laziness is less prone to floating out the
application of a function to its dictionary arguments, which
can thereby lose opportunities for fusion. Example:
foo :: Ord a => a -> ...
foo = /\a \(d:Ord a). let d' = ...d... in \(x:a). ....
-- So foo has arity 1
f = \x. foo dInt $ bar x
The (foo DInt) is floated out, and makes ineffective a RULE
foo (bar x) = ...
One could go further and make exprIsCheap reply True to any
dictionary-typed expression, but that's more work.
-}
arityLam :: Id -> ArityType -> ArityType
arityLam id (AT oss div) = AT (idStateHackOneShotInfo id : oss) div
floatIn :: Bool -> ArityType -> ArityType
-- We have something like (let x = E in b),
-- where b has the given arity type.
floatIn cheap at
| isDeadEndArityType at || cheap = at
-- If E is not cheap, keep arity only for one-shots
| otherwise = takeWhileOneShot at
arityApp :: ArityType -> Bool -> ArityType
-- Processing (fun arg) where at is the ArityType of fun,
-- Knock off an argument and behave like 'let'
arityApp (AT (_:oss) div) cheap = floatIn cheap (AT oss div)
arityApp at _ = at
-- | Least upper bound in the 'ArityType' lattice.
-- See the haddocks on 'ArityType' for the lattice.
--
-- Used for branches of a @case@.
andArityType :: ArityType -> ArityType -> ArityType
andArityType (AT (os1:oss1) div1) (AT (os2:oss2) div2)
| AT oss' div' <- andArityType (AT oss1 div1) (AT oss2 div2)
= AT ((os1 `bestOneShot` os2) : oss') div' -- See Note [Combining case branches]
andArityType (AT [] div1) at2
| isDeadEndDiv div1 = at2 -- Note [ABot branches: max arity wins]
| otherwise = takeWhileOneShot at2 -- See Note [Combining case branches]
andArityType at1 (AT [] div2)
| isDeadEndDiv div2 = at1 -- Note [ABot branches: max arity wins]
| otherwise = takeWhileOneShot at1 -- See Note [Combining case branches]
{- Note [ABot branches: max arity wins]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Consider case x of
True -> \x. error "urk"
False -> \xy. error "urk2"
Remember: \o1..on.⊥ means "if you apply to n args, it'll definitely diverge".
So we need \??.⊥ for the whole thing, the /max/ of both arities.
Note [Combining case branches]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Consider
go = \x. let z = go e0
go2 = \x. case x of
True -> z
False -> \s(one-shot). e1
in go2 x
We *really* want to respect the one-shot annotation provided by the
user and eta-expand go and go2.
When combining the branches of the case we have
T `andAT` \1.T
and we want to get \1.T.
But if the inner lambda wasn't one-shot (\?.T) we don't want to do this.
(We need a usage analysis to justify that.)
So we combine the best of the two branches, on the (slightly dodgy)
basis that if we know one branch is one-shot, then they all must be.
Surprisingly, this means that the one-shot arity type is effectively the top
element of the lattice.
Note [Arity trimming]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Consider ((\x y. blah) |> co), where co :: (Int->Int->Int) ~ (Int -> F a) , and
F is some type family.
Because of Note [exprArity invariant], item (2), we must return with arity at
most 1, because typeArity (Int -> F a) = 1. So we have to trim the result of
calling arityType on (\x y. blah). Failing to do so, and hence breaking the
exprArity invariant, led to #5441.
How to trim? If we end in topDiv, it's easy. But we must take great care with
dead ends (i.e. botDiv). Suppose the expression was (\x y. error "urk"),
we'll get \??.⊥. We absolutely must not trim that to \?.⊥, because that
claims that ((\x y. error "urk") |> co) diverges when given one argument,
which it absolutely does not. And Bad Things happen if we think something
returns bottom when it doesn't (#16066).
So, if we need to trim a dead-ending arity type, switch (conservatively) to
topDiv.
Historical note: long ago, we unconditionally switched to topDiv when we
encountered a cast, but that is far too conservative: see #5475
-}
---------------------------
-- | Each of the entry-points of the analyser ('arityType') has different
-- requirements. The entry-points are
--
-- 1. 'exprBotStrictness_maybe'
-- 2. 'exprEtaExpandArity'
-- 3. 'findRhsArity'
--
-- For each of the entry-points, there is a separate mode that governs
--
-- 1. How pedantic we are wrt. ⊥, in 'pedanticBottoms'.
-- 2. Whether we store arity signatures for non-recursive let-bindings,
-- accessed in 'extendSigEnv'/'lookupSigEnv'.
-- See Note [Arity analysis] why that's important.
-- 3. Which expressions we consider cheap to float inside a lambda,
-- in 'myExprIsCheap'.
data AnalysisMode
= BotStrictness
-- ^ Used during 'exprBotStrictness_maybe'.
| EtaExpandArity { am_ped_bot :: !Bool
, am_dicts_cheap :: !Bool }
-- ^ Used for finding an expression's eta-expanding arity quickly, without
-- fixed-point iteration ('exprEtaExpandArity').
| FindRhsArity { am_ped_bot :: !Bool
, am_dicts_cheap :: !Bool
, am_sigs :: !(IdEnv ArityType) }
-- ^ Used for regular, fixed-point arity analysis ('findRhsArity').
-- See Note [Arity analysis] for details about fixed-point iteration.
-- INVARIANT: Disjoint with 'ae_joins'.
data ArityEnv
= AE
{ ae_mode :: !AnalysisMode
-- ^ The analysis mode. See 'AnalysisMode'.
, ae_joins :: !IdSet
-- ^ In-scope join points. See Note [Eta-expansion and join points]
-- INVARIANT: Disjoint with the domain of 'am_sigs' (if present).
}
-- | The @ArityEnv@ used by 'exprBotStrictness_maybe'. Pedantic about bottoms
-- and no application is ever considered cheap.
botStrictnessArityEnv :: ArityEnv
botStrictnessArityEnv = AE { ae_mode = BotStrictness, ae_joins = emptyVarSet }
-- | The @ArityEnv@ used by 'exprEtaExpandArity'.
etaExpandArityEnv :: DynFlags -> ArityEnv
etaExpandArityEnv dflags
= AE { ae_mode = EtaExpandArity { am_ped_bot = gopt Opt_PedanticBottoms dflags
, am_dicts_cheap = gopt Opt_DictsCheap dflags }
, ae_joins = emptyVarSet }
-- | The @ArityEnv@ used by 'findRhsArity'.
findRhsArityEnv :: DynFlags -> ArityEnv
findRhsArityEnv dflags
= AE { ae_mode = FindRhsArity { am_ped_bot = gopt Opt_PedanticBottoms dflags
, am_dicts_cheap = gopt Opt_DictsCheap dflags
, am_sigs = emptyVarEnv }
, ae_joins = emptyVarSet }
-- First some internal functions in snake_case for deleting in certain VarEnvs
-- of the ArityType. Don't call these; call delInScope* instead!
modifySigEnv :: (IdEnv ArityType -> IdEnv ArityType) -> ArityEnv -> ArityEnv
modifySigEnv f env@AE { ae_mode = am@FindRhsArity{am_sigs = sigs} } =
env { ae_mode = am { am_sigs = f sigs } }
modifySigEnv _ env = env
{-# INLINE modifySigEnv #-}
del_sig_env :: Id -> ArityEnv -> ArityEnv -- internal!
del_sig_env id = modifySigEnv (\sigs -> delVarEnv sigs id)
{-# INLINE del_sig_env #-}
del_sig_env_list :: [Id] -> ArityEnv -> ArityEnv -- internal!
del_sig_env_list ids = modifySigEnv (\sigs -> delVarEnvList sigs ids)
{-# INLINE del_sig_env_list #-}
del_join_env :: JoinId -> ArityEnv -> ArityEnv -- internal!
del_join_env id env@(AE { ae_joins = joins })
= env { ae_joins = delVarSet joins id }
{-# INLINE del_join_env #-}
del_join_env_list :: [JoinId] -> ArityEnv -> ArityEnv -- internal!
del_join_env_list ids env@(AE { ae_joins = joins })
= env { ae_joins = delVarSetList joins ids }
{-# INLINE del_join_env_list #-}
-- end of internal deletion functions
extendJoinEnv :: ArityEnv -> [JoinId] -> ArityEnv
extendJoinEnv env@(AE { ae_joins = joins }) join_ids
= del_sig_env_list join_ids
$ env { ae_joins = joins `extendVarSetList` join_ids }
extendSigEnv :: ArityEnv -> Id -> ArityType -> ArityEnv
extendSigEnv env id ar_ty
= del_join_env id (modifySigEnv (\sigs -> extendVarEnv sigs id ar_ty) env)
delInScope :: ArityEnv -> Id -> ArityEnv
delInScope env id = del_join_env id $ del_sig_env id env
delInScopeList :: ArityEnv -> [Id] -> ArityEnv
delInScopeList env ids = del_join_env_list ids $ del_sig_env_list ids env
lookupSigEnv :: ArityEnv -> Id -> Maybe ArityType
lookupSigEnv AE{ ae_mode = mode } id = case mode of
BotStrictness -> Nothing
EtaExpandArity{} -> Nothing
FindRhsArity{ am_sigs = sigs } -> lookupVarEnv sigs id
-- | Whether the analysis should be pedantic about bottoms.
-- 'exprBotStrictness_maybe' always is.
pedanticBottoms :: ArityEnv -> Bool
pedanticBottoms AE{ ae_mode = mode } = case mode of
BotStrictness -> True
EtaExpandArity{ am_ped_bot = ped_bot } -> ped_bot
FindRhsArity{ am_ped_bot = ped_bot } -> ped_bot
-- | A version of 'exprIsCheap' that considers results from arity analysis
-- and optionally the expression's type.
-- Under 'exprBotStrictness_maybe', no expressions are cheap.
myExprIsCheap :: ArityEnv -> CoreExpr -> Maybe Type -> Bool
myExprIsCheap AE{ae_mode = mode} e mb_ty = case mode of
BotStrictness -> False
_ -> cheap_dict || cheap_fun e
where
cheap_dict = am_dicts_cheap mode && fmap isDictTy mb_ty == Just True
cheap_fun e = case mode of
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ <= 900
BotStrictness -> panic "impossible"
#endif
EtaExpandArity{} -> exprIsCheap e
FindRhsArity{am_sigs = sigs} -> exprIsCheapX (myIsCheapApp sigs) e
-- | A version of 'isCheapApp' that considers results from arity analysis.
-- See Note [Arity analysis] for what's in the signature environment and why
-- it's important.
myIsCheapApp :: IdEnv ArityType -> CheapAppFun
myIsCheapApp sigs fn n_val_args = case lookupVarEnv sigs fn of
-- Nothing means not a local function, fall back to regular
-- 'GHC.Core.Utils.isCheapApp'
Nothing -> isCheapApp fn n_val_args
-- @Just at@ means local function with @at@ as current ArityType.
-- Roughly approximate what 'isCheapApp' is doing.
Just (AT oss div)
| isDeadEndDiv div -> True -- See Note [isCheapApp: bottoming functions] in GHC.Core.Utils
| n_val_args < length oss -> True -- Essentially isWorkFreeApp
| otherwise -> False
----------------
arityType :: ArityEnv -> CoreExpr -> ArityType
arityType env (Cast e co)
= minWithArity (arityType env e) co_arity -- See Note [Arity trimming]
where
co_arity = length (typeArity (coercionRKind co))
-- See Note [exprArity invariant] (2); must be true of
-- arityType too, since that is how we compute the arity
-- of variables, and they in turn affect result of exprArity
-- #5441 is a nice demo
arityType env (Var v)
| v `elemVarSet` ae_joins env
= botArityType -- See Note [Eta-expansion and join points]
| Just at <- lookupSigEnv env v -- Local binding
= at
| otherwise
= idArityType v
-- Lambdas; increase arity
arityType env (Lam x e)
| isId x = arityLam x (arityType env' e)
| otherwise = arityType env' e
where
env' = delInScope env x
-- Applications; decrease arity, except for types
arityType env (App fun (Type _))
= arityType env fun
arityType env (App fun arg )
= arityApp (arityType env fun) (myExprIsCheap env arg Nothing)
-- Case/Let; keep arity if either the expression is cheap
-- or it's a 1-shot lambda
-- The former is not really right for Haskell
-- f x = case x of { (a,b) -> \y. e }
-- ===>
-- f x y = case x of { (a,b) -> e }
-- The difference is observable using 'seq'
--
arityType env (Case scrut bndr _ alts)
| exprIsDeadEnd scrut || null alts
= botArityType -- Do not eta expand. See Note [Dealing with bottom (1)]
| not (pedanticBottoms env) -- See Note [Dealing with bottom (2)]
, myExprIsCheap env scrut (Just (idType bndr))
= alts_type
| exprOkForSpeculation scrut
= alts_type
| otherwise -- In the remaining cases we may not push
= takeWhileOneShot alts_type -- evaluation of the scrutinee in
where
env' = delInScope env bndr
arity_type_alt (Alt _con bndrs rhs) = arityType (delInScopeList env' bndrs) rhs
alts_type = foldr1 andArityType (map arity_type_alt alts)
arityType env (Let (NonRec j rhs) body)
| Just join_arity <- isJoinId_maybe j
, (_, rhs_body) <- collectNBinders join_arity rhs
= -- See Note [Eta-expansion and join points]
andArityType (arityType env rhs_body)
(arityType env' body)
where
env' = extendJoinEnv env [j]
arityType env (Let (Rec pairs) body)
| ((j,_):_) <- pairs
, isJoinId j
= -- See Note [Eta-expansion and join points]
foldr (andArityType . do_one) (arityType env' body) pairs
where
env' = extendJoinEnv env (map fst pairs)
do_one (j,rhs)
| Just arity <- isJoinId_maybe j
= arityType env' $ snd $ collectNBinders arity rhs
| otherwise
= pprPanic "arityType:joinrec" (ppr pairs)
arityType env (Let (NonRec b r) e)
= floatIn cheap_rhs (arityType env' e)
where
cheap_rhs = myExprIsCheap env r (Just (idType b))
env' = extendSigEnv env b (arityType env r)
arityType env (Let (Rec prs) e)
= floatIn (all is_cheap prs) (arityType env' e)
where
env' = delInScopeList env (map fst prs)
is_cheap (b,e) = myExprIsCheap env' e (Just (idType b))
arityType env (Tick t e)
| not (tickishIsCode t) = arityType env e
arityType _ _ = topArityType
{- Note [Eta-expansion and join points]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Consider this (#18328)
f x = join j y = case y of
True -> \a. blah
False -> \b. blah
in case x of
A -> j True
B -> \c. blah
C -> j False
and suppose the join point is too big to inline. Now, what is the
arity of f? If we inlined the join point, we'd definitely say "arity
2" because we are prepared to push case-scrutinisation inside a
lambda. But currently the join point totally messes all that up,
because (thought of as a vanilla let-binding) the arity pinned on 'j'
is just 1.
Why don't we eta-expand j? Because of
Note [Do not eta-expand join points] in GHC.Core.Opt.Simplify.Utils
Even if we don't eta-expand j, why is its arity only 1?
See invariant 2b in Note [Invariants on join points] in GHC.Core.
So we do this:
* Treat the RHS of a join-point binding, /after/ stripping off
join-arity lambda-binders, as very like the body of the let.
More precisely, do andArityType with the arityType from the
body of the let.
* Dually, when we come to a /call/ of a join point, just no-op
by returning ABot, the bottom element of ArityType,
which so that: bot `andArityType` x = x
* This works if the join point is bound in the expression we are
taking the arityType of. But if it's bound further out, it makes
no sense to say that (say) the arityType of (j False) is ABot.
Bad things happen. So we keep track of the in-scope join-point Ids
in ae_join.
This will make f, above, have arity 2. Then, we'll eta-expand it thus:
f x eta = (join j y = ... in case x of ...) eta
and the Simplify will automatically push that application of eta into
the join points.
An alternative (roughly equivalent) idea would be to carry an
environment mapping let-bound Ids to their ArityType.
-}
idArityType :: Id -> ArityType
idArityType v
| strict_sig <- idStrictness v
, not $ isTopSig strict_sig
, (ds, div) <- splitStrictSig strict_sig
, let arity = length ds
-- Every strictness signature admits an arity signature!
= AT (take arity one_shots) div
| otherwise
= AT (take (idArity v) one_shots) topDiv
where
one_shots :: [OneShotInfo] -- One-shot-ness derived from the type
one_shots = typeArity (idType v)
{-
%************************************************************************
%* *
The main eta-expander
%* *
%************************************************************************
We go for:
f = \x1..xn -> N ==> f = \x1..xn y1..ym -> N y1..ym
(n >= 0)
where (in both cases)
* The xi can include type variables
* The yi are all value variables
* N is a NORMAL FORM (i.e. no redexes anywhere)
wanting a suitable number of extra args.
The biggest reason for doing this is for cases like
f = \x -> case x of
True -> \y -> e1
False -> \y -> e2
Here we want to get the lambdas together. A good example is the nofib
program fibheaps, which gets 25% more allocation if you don't do this
eta-expansion.
We may have to sandwich some coerces between the lambdas
to make the types work. exprEtaExpandArity looks through coerces
when computing arity; and etaExpand adds the coerces as necessary when
actually computing the expansion.
Note [No crap in eta-expanded code]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The eta expander is careful not to introduce "crap". In particular,
given a CoreExpr satisfying the 'CpeRhs' invariant (in CorePrep), it
returns a CoreExpr satisfying the same invariant. See Note [Eta
expansion and the CorePrep invariants] in CorePrep.
This means the eta-expander has to do a bit of on-the-fly
simplification but it's not too hard. The alternative, of relying on
a subsequent clean-up phase of the Simplifier to de-crapify the result,
means you can't really use it in CorePrep, which is painful.
Note [Eta expansion for join points]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The no-crap rule is very tiresome to guarantee when
we have join points. Consider eta-expanding
let j :: Int -> Int -> Bool
j x = e
in b
The simple way is
\(y::Int). (let j x = e in b) y
The no-crap way is
\(y::Int). let j' :: Int -> Bool
j' x = e y
in b[j'/j] y
where I have written to stress that j's type has
changed. Note that (of course!) we have to push the application
inside the RHS of the join as well as into the body. AND if j
has an unfolding we have to push it into there too. AND j might
be recursive...
So for now I'm abandoning the no-crap rule in this case. I think
that for the use in CorePrep it really doesn't matter; and if
it does, then CoreToStg.myCollectArgs will fall over.
(Moreover, I think that casts can make the no-crap rule fail too.)
Note [Eta expansion and SCCs]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Note that SCCs are not treated specially by etaExpand. If we have
etaExpand 2 (\x -> scc "foo" e)
= (\xy -> (scc "foo" e) y)
So the costs of evaluating 'e' (not 'e y') are attributed to "foo"
Note [Eta expansion and source notes]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
CorePrep puts floatable ticks outside of value applications, but not
type applications. As a result we might be trying to eta-expand an
expression like
(src<...> v) @a
which we want to lead to code like
\x -> src<...> v @a x
This means that we need to look through type applications and be ready
to re-add floats on the top.
Note [Eta expansion with ArityType]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The etaExpandAT function takes an ArityType (not just an Arity) to
guide eta-expansion. Why? Because we want to preserve one-shot info.
Consider
foo = \x. case x of
True -> (\s{os}. blah) |> co
False -> wubble
We'll get an ArityType for foo of \?1.T.
Then we want to eta-expand to
foo = \x. (\eta{os}. (case x of ...as before...) eta) |> some_co
That 'eta' binder is fresh, and we really want it to have the
one-shot flag from the inner \s{os}. By expanding with the
ArityType gotten from analysing the RHS, we achieve this neatly.
This makes a big difference to the one-shot monad trick;
see Note [The one-shot state monad trick] in GHC.Utils.Monad.
-}
-- | @etaExpand n e@ returns an expression with
-- the same meaning as @e@, but with arity @n@.
--
-- Given:
--
-- > e' = etaExpand n e
--
-- We should have that:
--
-- > ty = exprType e = exprType e'
etaExpand :: Arity -> CoreExpr -> CoreExpr
etaExpandAT :: ArityType -> CoreExpr -> CoreExpr
etaExpand n orig_expr = eta_expand (replicate n NoOneShotInfo) orig_expr
etaExpandAT (AT oss _) orig_expr = eta_expand oss orig_expr
-- See Note [Eta expansion with ArityType]
-- etaExpand arity e = res
-- Then 'res' has at least 'arity' lambdas at the top
-- See Note [Eta expansion with ArityType]
--
-- etaExpand deals with for-alls. For example:
-- etaExpand 1 E
-- where E :: forall a. a -> a
-- would return
-- (/\b. \y::a -> E b y)
--
-- It deals with coerces too, though they are now rare
-- so perhaps the extra code isn't worth it
eta_expand :: [OneShotInfo] -> CoreExpr -> CoreExpr
eta_expand one_shots orig_expr
= go one_shots orig_expr
where
-- Strip off existing lambdas and casts before handing off to mkEtaWW
-- Note [Eta expansion and SCCs]
go [] expr = expr
go oss@(_:oss1) (Lam v body) | isTyVar v = Lam v (go oss body)
| otherwise = Lam v (go oss1 body)
go oss (Cast expr co) = Cast (go oss expr) co
go oss expr
= -- pprTrace "ee" (vcat [ppr orig_expr, ppr expr, pprEtaInfos etas]) $
retick $ etaInfoAbs etas (etaInfoApp in_scope' sexpr etas)
where
in_scope = mkInScopeSet (exprFreeVars expr)
(in_scope', etas) = mkEtaWW oss (ppr orig_expr) in_scope (exprType expr)
-- Find ticks behind type apps.
-- See Note [Eta expansion and source notes]
(expr', args) = collectArgs expr
(ticks, expr'') = stripTicksTop tickishFloatable expr'
sexpr = foldl' App expr'' args
retick expr = foldr mkTick expr ticks
{- *********************************************************************
* *
The EtaInfo mechanism
mkEtaWW, etaInfoAbs, etaInfoApp
* *
********************************************************************* -}
{- Note [The EtaInfo mechanism]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Suppose we have (e :: ty) and we want to eta-expand it to arity N.
This what eta_expand does. We do it in two steps:
1. mkEtaWW: from 'ty' and 'N' build a [EtaInfo] which describes
the shape of the expansion necessary to expand to arity N.
2. Build the term
\ v1..vn. e v1 .. vn
where those abstractions and applications are described by
the same [EtaInfo]. Specifically we build the term
etaInfoAbs etas (etaInfoApp in_scope e etas)
where etas :: [EtaInfo]#
etaInfoAbs builds the lambdas
etaInfoApp builds the applictions
Note that the /same/ [EtaInfo] drives both etaInfoAbs and etaInfoApp
To a first approximation [EtaInfo] is just [Var]. But
casts complicate the question. If we have
newtype N a = MkN (S -> a)
and
ty = N (N Int)
then the eta-expansion must look like
(\x (\y. ((e |> co1) x) |> co2) y)
|> sym co2)
|> sym co1
where
co1 :: N (N Int) ~ S -> N Int
co2 :: N Int ~ S -> Int
Blimey! Look at all those casts. Moreover, if the type
is very deeply nested (as happens in #18223), the repetition
of types can make the overall term very large. So there is a big
payoff in cancelling out casts aggressively wherever possible.
(See also Note [No crap in eta-expanded code].)
This matters a lot in etaEInfoApp, where we
* Do beta-reduction on the fly
* Use getARg_mabye to get a cast out of the way,
so that we can do beta reduction
Together this makes a big difference. Consider when e is
case x of
True -> (\x -> e1) |> c1
False -> (\p -> e2) |> c2
When we eta-expand this to arity 1, say, etaInfoAbs will wrap
a (\eta) around the outside and use etaInfoApp to apply each
alternative to 'eta'. We want to beta-reduce all that junk
away.
#18223 was a dramatic example in which the intermediate term was
grotesquely huge, even though the next Simplifier iteration squashed
it. Better to kill it at birth.
-}
--------------
data EtaInfo -- Abstraction Application
= EtaVar Var -- /\a. [] [] a
-- (\x. []) [] x
| EtaCo CoercionR -- [] |> sym co [] |> co
instance Outputable EtaInfo where
ppr (EtaVar v) = text "EtaVar" <+> ppr v <+> dcolon <+> ppr (idType v)
ppr (EtaCo co) = text "EtaCo" <+> hang (ppr co) 2 (dcolon <+> ppr (coercionType co))
-- Used in debug-printing
-- pprEtaInfos :: [EtaInfo] -> SDoc
-- pprEtaInfos eis = brackets $ vcat $ punctuate comma $ map ppr eis
pushCoercion :: Coercion -> [EtaInfo] -> [EtaInfo]
-- Puts a EtaCo on the front of a [EtaInfo], but combining
-- with an existing EtaCo if possible
-- A minor improvement
pushCoercion co1 (EtaCo co2 : eis)
| isReflCo co = eis
| otherwise = EtaCo co : eis
where
co = co1 `mkTransCo` co2
pushCoercion co eis
= EtaCo co : eis
getArg_maybe :: [EtaInfo] -> Maybe (CoreArg, [EtaInfo])
-- Get an argument to the front of the [EtaInfo], if possible,
-- by pushing any EtaCo through the argument
getArg_maybe eis = go MRefl eis
where
go :: MCoercion -> [EtaInfo] -> Maybe (CoreArg, [EtaInfo])
go _ [] = Nothing
go mco (EtaCo co2 : eis) = go (mkTransMCoL mco co2) eis
go MRefl (EtaVar v : eis) = Just (varToCoreExpr v, eis)
go (MCo co) (EtaVar v : eis)
| Just (arg, mco) <- pushCoArg co (varToCoreExpr v)
= case mco of
MRefl -> Just (arg, eis)
MCo co -> Just (arg, pushCoercion co eis)
| otherwise
= Nothing
mkCastMCo :: CoreExpr -> MCoercionR -> CoreExpr
mkCastMCo e MRefl = e
mkCastMCo e (MCo co) = Cast e co
-- We are careful to use (MCo co) only when co is not reflexive
-- Hence (Cast e co) rather than (mkCast e co)
mkPiMCo :: Var -> MCoercionR -> MCoercionR
mkPiMCo _ MRefl = MRefl
mkPiMCo v (MCo co) = MCo (mkPiCo Representational v co)
--------------
etaInfoAbs :: [EtaInfo] -> CoreExpr -> CoreExpr
-- See Note [The EtaInfo mechanism]
etaInfoAbs eis expr
| null eis = expr
| otherwise = case final_mco of
MRefl -> expr'
MCo co -> mkCast expr' co
where
(expr', final_mco) = foldr do_one (split_cast expr) eis
do_one :: EtaInfo -> (CoreExpr, MCoercion) -> (CoreExpr, MCoercion)
-- Implements the "Abstraction" column in the comments for data EtaInfo
-- In both argument and result the pair (e,mco) denotes (e |> mco)
do_one (EtaVar v) (expr, mco) = (Lam v expr, mkPiMCo v mco)
do_one (EtaCo co) (expr, mco) = (expr, mco `mkTransMCoL` mkSymCo co)
split_cast :: CoreExpr -> (CoreExpr, MCoercion)
split_cast (Cast e co) = (e, MCo co)
split_cast e = (e, MRefl)
-- We could look in the body of lets, and the branches of a case
-- But then we would have to worry about whether the cast mentioned
-- any of the bound variables, which is tiresome. Later maybe.
-- Result: we may end up with
-- (\(x::Int). case x of { DEFAULT -> e1 |> co }) |> sym (->co)
-- and fail to optimise it away
--------------
etaInfoApp :: InScopeSet -> CoreExpr -> [EtaInfo] -> CoreExpr
-- (etaInfoApp s e eis) returns something equivalent to
-- (substExpr s e `appliedto` eis)
-- See Note [The EtaInfo mechanism]
etaInfoApp in_scope expr eis
= go (mkEmptySubst in_scope) expr eis
where
go :: Subst -> CoreExpr -> [EtaInfo] -> CoreExpr
-- 'go' pushed down the eta-infos into the branch of a case
-- and the body of a let; and does beta-reduction if possible
go subst (Tick t e) eis
= Tick (substTickish subst t) (go subst e eis)
go subst (Cast e co) eis
= go subst e (pushCoercion (Core.substCo subst co) eis)
go subst (Case e b ty alts) eis
= Case (Core.substExprSC subst e) b1 ty' alts'
where
(subst1, b1) = Core.substBndr subst b
alts' = map subst_alt alts
ty' = etaInfoAppTy (Core.substTy subst ty) eis
subst_alt (Alt con bs rhs) = Alt con bs' (go subst2 rhs eis)
where
(subst2,bs') = Core.substBndrs subst1 bs
go subst (Let b e) eis
| not (isJoinBind b) -- See Note [Eta expansion for join points]
= Let b' (go subst' e eis)
where
(subst', b') = Core.substBindSC subst b
-- Beta-reduction if possible, using getArg_maybe to push
-- any intervening casts past the argument
-- See Note [The EtaInfo mechansim]
go subst (Lam v e) eis
| Just (arg, eis') <- getArg_maybe eis
= go (Core.extendSubst subst v arg) e eis'
-- Stop pushing down; just wrap the expression up
go subst e eis = wrap (Core.substExprSC subst e) eis
wrap e [] = e
wrap e (EtaVar v : eis) = wrap (App e (varToCoreExpr v)) eis
wrap e (EtaCo co : eis) = wrap (Cast e co) eis
--------------
etaInfoAppTy :: Type -> [EtaInfo] -> Type
-- If e :: ty
-- then etaInfoApp e eis :: etaInfoApp ty eis
etaInfoAppTy ty [] = ty
etaInfoAppTy ty (EtaVar v : eis) = etaInfoAppTy (applyTypeToArg ty (varToCoreExpr v)) eis
etaInfoAppTy _ (EtaCo co : eis) = etaInfoAppTy (coercionRKind co) eis
--------------
-- | @mkEtaWW n _ fvs ty@ will compute the 'EtaInfo' necessary for eta-expanding
-- an expression @e :: ty@ to take @n@ value arguments, where @fvs@ are the
-- free variables of @e@.
--
-- Note that this function is entirely unconcerned about cost centres and other
-- semantically-irrelevant source annotations, so call sites must take care to
-- preserve that info. See Note [Eta expansion and SCCs].
mkEtaWW
:: [OneShotInfo]
-- ^ How many value arguments to eta-expand
-> SDoc
-- ^ The pretty-printed original expression, for warnings.
-> InScopeSet
-- ^ A super-set of the free vars of the expression to eta-expand.
-> Type
-> (InScopeSet, [EtaInfo])
-- ^ The variables in 'EtaInfo' are fresh wrt. to the incoming 'InScopeSet'.
-- The outgoing 'InScopeSet' extends the incoming 'InScopeSet' with the
-- fresh variables in 'EtaInfo'.
mkEtaWW orig_oss ppr_orig_expr in_scope orig_ty
= go 0 orig_oss empty_subst orig_ty []
where
empty_subst = mkEmptyTCvSubst in_scope
go :: Int -- For fresh names
-> [OneShotInfo] -- Number of value args to expand to
-> TCvSubst -> Type -- We are really looking at subst(ty)
-> [EtaInfo] -- Accumulating parameter
-> (InScopeSet, [EtaInfo])
go _ [] subst _ eis -- See Note [exprArity invariant]
----------- Done! No more expansion needed
= (getTCvInScope subst, reverse eis)
go n oss@(one_shot:oss1) subst ty eis -- See Note [exprArity invariant]
----------- Forall types (forall a. ty)
| Just (tcv,ty') <- splitForAllTyCoVar_maybe ty
, (subst', tcv') <- Type.substVarBndr subst tcv
, let oss' | isTyVar tcv = oss
| otherwise = oss1
-- A forall can bind a CoVar, in which case
-- we consume one of the [OneShotInfo]
= go n oss' subst' ty' (EtaVar tcv' : eis)
----------- Function types (t1 -> t2)
| Just (mult, arg_ty, res_ty) <- splitFunTy_maybe ty
, not (isTypeLevPoly arg_ty)
-- See Note [Levity polymorphism invariants] in GHC.Core
-- See also test case typecheck/should_run/EtaExpandLevPoly
, (subst', eta_id) <- freshEtaId n subst (Scaled mult arg_ty)
-- Avoid free vars of the original expression
, let eta_id' = eta_id `setIdOneShotInfo` one_shot
= go (n+1) oss1 subst' res_ty (EtaVar eta_id' : eis)
----------- Newtypes
-- Given this:
-- newtype T = MkT ([T] -> Int)
-- Consider eta-expanding this
-- eta_expand 1 e T
-- We want to get
-- coerce T (\x::[T] -> (coerce ([T]->Int) e) x)
| Just (co, ty') <- topNormaliseNewType_maybe ty
, let co' = Type.substCo subst co
-- Remember to apply the substitution to co (#16979)
-- (or we could have applied to ty, but then
-- we'd have had to zap it for the recursive call)
= go n oss subst ty' (pushCoercion co' eis)
| otherwise -- We have an expression of arity > 0,
-- but its type isn't a function, or a binder
-- is levity-polymorphic
= WARN( True, (ppr orig_oss <+> ppr orig_ty) $$ ppr_orig_expr )
(getTCvInScope subst, reverse eis)
-- This *can* legitimately happen:
-- e.g. coerce Int (\x. x) Essentially the programmer is
-- playing fast and loose with types (Happy does this a lot).
-- So we simply decline to eta-expand. Otherwise we'd end up
-- with an explicit lambda having a non-function type
{- *********************************************************************
* *
The "push rules"
* *
************************************************************************
Here we implement the "push rules" from FC papers:
* The push-argument rules, where we can move a coercion past an argument.
We have
(fun |> co) arg
and we want to transform it to
(fun arg') |> co'
for some suitable co' and transformed arg'.
* The PushK rule for data constructors. We have
(K e1 .. en) |> co
and we want to transform to
(K e1' .. en')
by pushing the coercion into the arguments
-}
pushCoArgs :: CoercionR -> [CoreArg] -> Maybe ([CoreArg], MCoercion)
pushCoArgs co [] = return ([], MCo co)
pushCoArgs co (arg:args) = do { (arg', m_co1) <- pushCoArg co arg
; case m_co1 of
MCo co1 -> do { (args', m_co2) <- pushCoArgs co1 args
; return (arg':args', m_co2) }
MRefl -> return (arg':args, MRefl) }
pushCoArg :: CoercionR -> CoreArg -> Maybe (CoreArg, MCoercion)
-- We have (fun |> co) arg, and we want to transform it to
-- (fun arg) |> co
-- This may fail, e.g. if (fun :: N) where N is a newtype
-- C.f. simplCast in GHC.Core.Opt.Simplify
-- 'co' is always Representational
-- If the returned coercion is Nothing, then it would have been reflexive
pushCoArg co (Type ty) = do { (ty', m_co') <- pushCoTyArg co ty
; return (Type ty', m_co') }
pushCoArg co val_arg = do { (arg_co, m_co') <- pushCoValArg co
; return (val_arg `mkCastMCo` arg_co, m_co') }
pushCoTyArg :: CoercionR -> Type -> Maybe (Type, MCoercionR)
-- We have (fun |> co) @ty
-- Push the coercion through to return
-- (fun @ty') |> co'
-- 'co' is always Representational
-- If the returned coercion is Nothing, then it would have been reflexive;
-- it's faster not to compute it, though.
pushCoTyArg co ty
-- The following is inefficient - don't do `eqType` here, the coercion
-- optimizer will take care of it. See #14737.
-- -- | tyL `eqType` tyR
-- -- = Just (ty, Nothing)
| isReflCo co
= Just (ty, MRefl)
| isForAllTy_ty tyL
= ASSERT2( isForAllTy_ty tyR, ppr co $$ ppr ty )
Just (ty `mkCastTy` co1, MCo co2)
| otherwise
= Nothing
where
Pair tyL tyR = coercionKind co
-- co :: tyL ~ tyR
-- tyL = forall (a1 :: k1). ty1
-- tyR = forall (a2 :: k2). ty2
co1 = mkSymCo (mkNthCo Nominal 0 co)
-- co1 :: k2 ~N k1
-- Note that NthCo can extract a Nominal equality between the
-- kinds of the types related by a coercion between forall-types.
-- See the NthCo case in GHC.Core.Lint.
co2 = mkInstCo co (mkGReflLeftCo Nominal ty co1)
-- co2 :: ty1[ (ty|>co1)/a1 ] ~ ty2[ ty/a2 ]
-- Arg of mkInstCo is always nominal, hence mkNomReflCo
pushCoValArg :: CoercionR -> Maybe (MCoercionR, MCoercionR)
-- We have (fun |> co) arg
-- Push the coercion through to return
-- (fun (arg |> co_arg)) |> co_res
-- 'co' is always Representational
-- If the second returned Coercion is actually Nothing, then no cast is necessary;
-- the returned coercion would have been reflexive.
pushCoValArg co
-- The following is inefficient - don't do `eqType` here, the coercion
-- optimizer will take care of it. See #14737.
-- -- | tyL `eqType` tyR
-- -- = Just (mkRepReflCo arg, Nothing)
| isReflCo co
= Just (MRefl, MRefl)
| isFunTy tyL
, (co_mult, co1, co2) <- decomposeFunCo Representational co
, isReflexiveCo co_mult
-- We can't push the coercion in the case where co_mult isn't reflexivity:
-- it could be an unsafe axiom, and losing this information could yield
-- ill-typed terms. For instance (fun x ::(1) Int -> (fun _ -> () |> co) x)
-- with co :: (Int -> ()) ~ (Int %1 -> ()), would reduce to (fun x ::(1) Int
-- -> (fun _ ::(Many) Int -> ()) x) which is ill-typed
-- If co :: (tyL1 -> tyL2) ~ (tyR1 -> tyR2)
-- then co1 :: tyL1 ~ tyR1
-- co2 :: tyL2 ~ tyR2
= ASSERT2( isFunTy tyR, ppr co $$ ppr arg )
Just (coToMCo (mkSymCo co1), coToMCo co2)
-- Critically, coToMCo to checks for ReflCo; the whole coercion may not
-- be reflexive, but either of its components might be
-- We could use isReflexiveCo, but it's not clear if the benefit
-- is worth the cost, and it makes no difference in #18223
| otherwise
= Nothing
where
arg = funArgTy tyR
Pair tyL tyR = coercionKind co
pushCoercionIntoLambda
:: InScopeSet -> Var -> CoreExpr -> CoercionR -> Maybe (Var, CoreExpr)
-- This implements the Push rule from the paper on coercions
-- (\x. e) |> co
-- ===>
-- (\x'. e |> co')
pushCoercionIntoLambda in_scope x e co
| ASSERT(not (isTyVar x) && not (isCoVar x)) True
, Pair s1s2 t1t2 <- coercionKind co
, Just (_, _s1,_s2) <- splitFunTy_maybe s1s2
, Just (w1, t1,_t2) <- splitFunTy_maybe t1t2
, (co_mult, co1, co2) <- decomposeFunCo Representational co
, isReflexiveCo co_mult
-- We can't push the coercion in the case where co_mult isn't
-- reflexivity. See pushCoValArg for more details.
= let
-- Should we optimize the coercions here?
-- Otherwise they might not match too well
x' = x `setIdType` t1 `setIdMult` w1
in_scope' = in_scope `extendInScopeSet` x'
subst = extendIdSubst (mkEmptySubst in_scope')
x
(mkCast (Var x') co1)
in Just (x', substExpr subst e `mkCast` co2)
| otherwise
= pprTrace "exprIsLambda_maybe: Unexpected lambda in case" (ppr (Lam x e))
Nothing
pushCoDataCon :: DataCon -> [CoreExpr] -> Coercion
-> Maybe (DataCon
, [Type] -- Universal type args
, [CoreExpr]) -- All other args incl existentials
-- Implement the KPush reduction rule as described in "Down with kinds"
-- The transformation applies iff we have
-- (C e1 ... en) `cast` co
-- where co :: (T t1 .. tn) ~ to_ty
-- The left-hand one must be a T, because exprIsConApp returned True
-- but the right-hand one might not be. (Though it usually will.)
pushCoDataCon dc dc_args co
| isReflCo co || from_ty `eqType` to_ty -- try cheap test first
, let (univ_ty_args, rest_args) = splitAtList (dataConUnivTyVars dc) dc_args
= Just (dc, map exprToType univ_ty_args, rest_args)
| Just (to_tc, to_tc_arg_tys) <- splitTyConApp_maybe to_ty
, to_tc == dataConTyCon dc
-- These two tests can fail; we might see
-- (C x y) `cast` (g :: T a ~ S [a]),
-- where S is a type function. In fact, exprIsConApp
-- will probably not be called in such circumstances,
-- but there's nothing wrong with it
= let
tc_arity = tyConArity to_tc
dc_univ_tyvars = dataConUnivTyVars dc
dc_ex_tcvars = dataConExTyCoVars dc
arg_tys = dataConRepArgTys dc
non_univ_args = dropList dc_univ_tyvars dc_args
(ex_args, val_args) = splitAtList dc_ex_tcvars non_univ_args
-- Make the "Psi" from the paper
omegas = decomposeCo tc_arity co (tyConRolesRepresentational to_tc)
(psi_subst, to_ex_arg_tys)
= liftCoSubstWithEx Representational
dc_univ_tyvars
omegas
dc_ex_tcvars
(map exprToType ex_args)
-- Cast the value arguments (which include dictionaries)
new_val_args = zipWith cast_arg (map scaledThing arg_tys) val_args
cast_arg arg_ty arg = mkCast arg (psi_subst arg_ty)
to_ex_args = map Type to_ex_arg_tys
dump_doc = vcat [ppr dc, ppr dc_univ_tyvars, ppr dc_ex_tcvars,
ppr arg_tys, ppr dc_args,
ppr ex_args, ppr val_args, ppr co, ppr from_ty, ppr to_ty, ppr to_tc
, ppr $ mkTyConApp to_tc (map exprToType $ takeList dc_univ_tyvars dc_args) ]
in
ASSERT2( eqType from_ty (mkTyConApp to_tc (map exprToType $ takeList dc_univ_tyvars dc_args)), dump_doc )
ASSERT2( equalLength val_args arg_tys, dump_doc )
Just (dc, to_tc_arg_tys, to_ex_args ++ new_val_args)
| otherwise
= Nothing
where
Pair from_ty to_ty = coercionKind co
collectBindersPushingCo :: CoreExpr -> ([Var], CoreExpr)
-- Collect lambda binders, pushing coercions inside if possible
-- E.g. (\x.e) |> g g :: -> blah
-- = (\x. e |> Nth 1 g)
--
-- That is,
--
-- collectBindersPushingCo ((\x.e) |> g) === ([x], e |> Nth 1 g)
collectBindersPushingCo e
= go [] e
where
-- Peel off lambdas until we hit a cast.
go :: [Var] -> CoreExpr -> ([Var], CoreExpr)
-- The accumulator is in reverse order
go bs (Lam b e) = go (b:bs) e
go bs (Cast e co) = go_c bs e co
go bs e = (reverse bs, e)
-- We are in a cast; peel off casts until we hit a lambda.
go_c :: [Var] -> CoreExpr -> CoercionR -> ([Var], CoreExpr)
-- (go_c bs e c) is same as (go bs e (e |> c))
go_c bs (Cast e co1) co2 = go_c bs e (co1 `mkTransCo` co2)
go_c bs (Lam b e) co = go_lam bs b e co
go_c bs e co = (reverse bs, mkCast e co)
-- We are in a lambda under a cast; peel off lambdas and build a
-- new coercion for the body.
go_lam :: [Var] -> Var -> CoreExpr -> CoercionR -> ([Var], CoreExpr)
-- (go_lam bs b e c) is same as (go_c bs (\b.e) c)
go_lam bs b e co
| isTyVar b
, let Pair tyL tyR = coercionKind co
, ASSERT( isForAllTy_ty tyL )
isForAllTy_ty tyR
, isReflCo (mkNthCo Nominal 0 co) -- See Note [collectBindersPushingCo]
= go_c (b:bs) e (mkInstCo co (mkNomReflCo (mkTyVarTy b)))
| isCoVar b
, let Pair tyL tyR = coercionKind co
, ASSERT( isForAllTy_co tyL )
isForAllTy_co tyR
, isReflCo (mkNthCo Nominal 0 co) -- See Note [collectBindersPushingCo]
, let cov = mkCoVarCo b
= go_c (b:bs) e (mkInstCo co (mkNomReflCo (mkCoercionTy cov)))
| isId b
, let Pair tyL tyR = coercionKind co
, ASSERT( isFunTy tyL) isFunTy tyR
, (co_mult, co_arg, co_res) <- decomposeFunCo Representational co
, isReflCo co_mult -- See Note [collectBindersPushingCo]
, isReflCo co_arg -- See Note [collectBindersPushingCo]
= go_c (b:bs) e co_res
| otherwise = (reverse bs, mkCast (Lam b e) co)
{-
Note [collectBindersPushingCo]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
We just look for coercions of form
# w -> blah
(and similarly for foralls) to keep this function simple. We could do
more elaborate stuff, but it'd involve substitution etc.
-}
{- *********************************************************************
* *
Join points
* *
********************************************************************* -}
-------------------
-- | Split an expression into the given number of binders and a body,
-- eta-expanding if necessary. Counts value *and* type binders.
etaExpandToJoinPoint :: JoinArity -> CoreExpr -> ([CoreBndr], CoreExpr)
etaExpandToJoinPoint join_arity expr
= go join_arity [] expr
where
go 0 rev_bs e = (reverse rev_bs, e)
go n rev_bs (Lam b e) = go (n-1) (b : rev_bs) e
go n rev_bs e = case etaBodyForJoinPoint n e of
(bs, e') -> (reverse rev_bs ++ bs, e')
etaExpandToJoinPointRule :: JoinArity -> CoreRule -> CoreRule
etaExpandToJoinPointRule _ rule@(BuiltinRule {})
= WARN(True, (sep [text "Can't eta-expand built-in rule:", ppr rule]))
-- How did a local binding get a built-in rule anyway? Probably a plugin.
rule
etaExpandToJoinPointRule join_arity rule@(Rule { ru_bndrs = bndrs, ru_rhs = rhs
, ru_args = args })
| need_args == 0
= rule
| need_args < 0
= pprPanic "etaExpandToJoinPointRule" (ppr join_arity $$ ppr rule)
| otherwise
= rule { ru_bndrs = bndrs ++ new_bndrs, ru_args = args ++ new_args
, ru_rhs = new_rhs }
where
need_args = join_arity - length args
(new_bndrs, new_rhs) = etaBodyForJoinPoint need_args rhs
new_args = varsToCoreExprs new_bndrs
-- Adds as many binders as asked for; assumes expr is not a lambda
etaBodyForJoinPoint :: Int -> CoreExpr -> ([CoreBndr], CoreExpr)
etaBodyForJoinPoint need_args body
= go need_args (exprType body) (init_subst body) [] body
where
go 0 _ _ rev_bs e
= (reverse rev_bs, e)
go n ty subst rev_bs e
| Just (tv, res_ty) <- splitForAllTyCoVar_maybe ty
, let (subst', tv') = substVarBndr subst tv
= go (n-1) res_ty subst' (tv' : rev_bs) (e `App` varToCoreExpr tv')
| Just (mult, arg_ty, res_ty) <- splitFunTy_maybe ty
, let (subst', b) = freshEtaId n subst (Scaled mult arg_ty)
= go (n-1) res_ty subst' (b : rev_bs) (e `App` Var b)
| otherwise
= pprPanic "etaBodyForJoinPoint" $ int need_args $$
ppr body $$ ppr (exprType body)
init_subst e = mkEmptyTCvSubst (mkInScopeSet (exprFreeVars e))
--------------
freshEtaId :: Int -> TCvSubst -> Scaled Type -> (TCvSubst, Id)
-- Make a fresh Id, with specified type (after applying substitution)
-- It should be "fresh" in the sense that it's not in the in-scope set
-- of the TvSubstEnv; and it should itself then be added to the in-scope
-- set of the TvSubstEnv
--
-- The Int is just a reasonable starting point for generating a unique;
-- it does not necessarily have to be unique itself.
freshEtaId n subst ty
= (subst', eta_id')
where
Scaled mult' ty' = Type.substScaledTyUnchecked subst ty
eta_id' = uniqAway (getTCvInScope subst) $
mkSysLocalOrCoVar (fsLit "eta") (mkBuiltinUnique n) mult' ty'
-- "OrCoVar" since this can be used to eta-expand
-- coercion abstractions
subst' = extendTCvInScope subst eta_id'