{-# OPTIONS_GHC -Werror #-}
{-# LANGUAGE Trustworthy #-}
{-# LANGUAGE RankNTypes, ScopedTypeVariables #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TupleSections #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeOperators #-}
{-# LANGUAGE GADTs #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds #-}
{-# LANGUAGE CPP #-}
-- ------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- | A monadic library for communication between a handler and
-- its client, the administered computation
--
-- Original work available at .
-- This module implements extensible effects as an alternative to monad transformers,
-- as described in and
-- .
--
-- Extensible Effects are implemented as typeclass constraints on an Eff[ect] datatype.
-- A contrived example can be found under "Control.Eff.Example". To run the
-- effects, consult the tests.
module Control.Eff (
module Control.Eff
, module Data.OpenUnion
) where
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 710
import Control.Applicative
#endif
import qualified Control.Arrow as A
import qualified Control.Category as C
import safe Data.OpenUnion
import safe Data.FTCQueue
import GHC.Exts (inline)
-- | Effectful arrow type: a function from a to b that also does effects
-- denoted by r
type Arr r a b = a -> Eff r b
-- | An effectful function from 'a' to 'b' that is a composition of one or more
-- effectful functions. The paremeter r describes the overall effect.
--
-- The composition members are accumulated in a type-aligned queue.
-- Using a newtype here enables us to define `Category' and `Arrow' instances.
newtype Arrs r a b = Arrs (FTCQueue (Eff r) a b)
-- | 'Arrs' can be composed and have a natural identity.
instance C.Category (Arrs r) where
id = ident
f . g = comp g f
-- | As the name suggests, 'Arrs' also has an 'Arrow' instance.
instance A.Arrow (Arrs r) where
arr = arr
first = singleK . first . (^$)
first :: Arr r a b -> Arr r (a, c) (b, c)
first x = \(a,c) -> (, c) `fmap` x a
-- | convert single effectful arrow into composable type. i.e., convert 'Arr' to
-- 'Arrs'
{-# INLINE singleK #-}
singleK :: Arr r a b -> Arrs r a b
singleK = Arrs . tsingleton
-- | Application to the `generalized effectful function' Arrs r b w, i.e.,
-- convert 'Arrs' to 'Arr'
{-# INLINABLE qApp #-}
qApp :: forall r b w. Arrs r b w -> Arr r b w
qApp (Arrs q) x = viewlMap (inline tviewl q) ($ x) cons
where
cons :: forall x. Arr r b x -> FTCQueue (Eff r) x w -> Eff r w
cons = \k t -> case k x of
Val y -> qApp (Arrs t) y
E u (Arrs q0) -> E u (Arrs (q0 >< t))
{-
-- A bit more understandable version
qApp :: Arrs r b w -> b -> Eff r w
qApp q x = case tviewl q of
TOne k -> k x
k :| t -> bind' (k x) t
where
bind' :: Eff r a -> Arrs r a b -> Eff r b
bind' (Pure y) k = qApp k y
bind' (Impure u q) k = Impure u (q >< k)
-}
-- | Syntactic sugar for 'qApp'
{-# INLINABLE (^$) #-}
(^$) :: forall r b w. Arrs r b w -> Arr r b w
q ^$ x = q `qApp` x
-- | Lift a function to an arrow
arr :: (a -> b) -> Arrs r a b
arr f = singleK (Val . f)
-- | The identity arrow
ident :: Arrs r a a
ident = arr id
-- | Arrow composition
comp :: Arrs r a b -> Arrs r b c -> Arrs r a c
comp (Arrs f) (Arrs g) = Arrs (f >< g)
-- | Common pattern: append 'Arr' to 'Arrs'
(^|>) :: Arrs r a b -> Arr r b c -> Arrs r a c
(Arrs f) ^|> g = Arrs (f |> g)
-- | The Eff monad (not a transformer!). It is a fairly standard coroutine monad
-- where the type @r@ is the type of effects that can be handled, and the
-- missing type @a@ (from the type application) is the type of value that is
-- returned. It is NOT a Free monad! There are no Functor constraints.
--
-- The two constructors denote the status of a coroutine (client): done with the
-- value of type a, or sending a request of type Union r with the continuation
-- Arrs r b a. Expressed another way: an `Eff` can either be a value (i.e.,
-- 'Val' case), or an effect of type @`Union` r@ producing another `Eff` (i.e.,
-- 'E' case). The result is that an `Eff` can produce an arbitrarily long chain
-- of @`Union` r@ effects, terminated with a pure value.
--
-- Potentially, inline Union into E
data Eff r a = Val a
| forall b. E (Union r b) (Arrs r b a)
-- | Compose effectful arrows (and possibly change the effect!)
{-# INLINE qComp #-}
qComp :: Arrs r a b -> (Eff r b -> Eff r' c) -> Arr r' a c
-- qComp g h = (h . (g `qApp`))
qComp g h = \a -> h $ (g ^$ a)
-- | Compose effectful arrows (and possibly change the effect!)
{-# INLINE qComps #-}
qComps :: Arrs r a b -> (Eff r b -> Eff r' c) -> Arrs r' a c
qComps g h = singleK $ qComp g h
-- | Eff is still a monad and a functor (and Applicative)
-- (despite the lack of the Functor constraint)
instance Functor (Eff r) where
{-# INLINE fmap #-}
fmap f (Val x) = Val (f x)
fmap f (E u q) = E u (q ^|> (Val . f)) -- does no mapping yet!
instance Applicative (Eff r) where
{-# INLINE pure #-}
pure = Val
Val f <*> e = f `fmap` e
E u q <*> e = E u (q ^|> (`fmap` e))
instance Monad (Eff r) where
{-# INLINE return #-}
{-# INLINE [2] (>>=) #-}
return = pure
Val x >>= k = k x
E u q >>= k = E u (q ^|> k) -- just accumulates continuations
{-
Val _ >> m = m
E u q >> m = E u (q ^|> const m)
-}
-- | Send a request and wait for a reply (resulting in an effectful
-- computation).
{-# INLINE [2] send #-}
send :: Member t r => t v -> Eff r v
send t = E (inj t) (singleK Val)
-- This seems to be a very beneficial rule! On micro-benchmarks, cuts
-- the needed memory in half and speeds up almost twice.
{-# RULES
"send/bind" [~3] forall t k. send t >>= k = E (inj t) (singleK k)
#-}
-- ------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- | The initial case, no effects. Get the result from a pure computation.
--
-- The type of run ensures that all effects must be handled:
-- only pure computations may be run.
run :: Eff '[] w -> w
run (Val x) = x
-- | the other case is unreachable since Union [] a cannot be
-- constructed.
-- Therefore, run is a total function if its argument terminates.
run (E _ _) = error "extensible-effects: the impossible happened!"
-- | A convenient pattern: given a request (open union), either
-- handle it or relay it.
{-# INLINE handle_relay #-}
handle_relay :: (a -> Eff r w) ->
(forall v. t v -> Arr r v w -> Eff r w) ->
Eff (t ': r) a -> Eff r w
handle_relay ret h m = loop m
where
loop (Val x) = ret x
loop (E u q) = case decomp u of
Right x -> h x k
Left u0 -> E u0 (singleK k)
where k = qComp q loop
-- | Parameterized handle_relay
{-# INLINE handle_relay_s #-}
handle_relay_s :: s ->
(s -> a -> Eff r w) ->
(forall v. s -> t v -> (s -> Arr r v w) -> Eff r w) ->
Eff (t ': r) a -> Eff r w
handle_relay_s s ret h m = loop s m
where
loop s0 (Val x) = ret s0 x
loop s0 (E u q) = case decomp u of
Right x -> h s0 x k
Left u0 -> E u0 (singleK (k s0))
where k s1 x = loop s1 $ qApp q x
-- | Add something like Control.Exception.catches? It could be useful
-- for control with cut.
--
-- Intercept the request and possibly reply to it, but leave it unhandled
-- (that's why we use the same r all throuout)
{-# INLINE interpose #-}
interpose :: Member t r =>
(a -> Eff r w) -> (forall v. t v -> Arr r v w -> Eff r w) ->
Eff r a -> Eff r w
interpose ret h m = loop m
where
loop (Val x) = ret x
loop (E u q) = case prj u of
Just x -> h x k
_ -> E u (singleK k)
where k = qComp q loop