Capnp.Tutorial

Description

This module provides a tutorial on the overall usage of the library. Note that it does not aim to provide a thorough introduction to capnproto itself; see https://capnproto.org for general information.

Each of the example programs described here can also be found in the examples/ subdirectory in the source repository.

Synopsis

# Overview

This module provides an overview of the capnp library.

# Serialization

The serialization API is roughly divided into two parts: a low level API and a high level API. The high level API eschews some of the benefits of the wire format in favor of a more convenient interface.

## High Level API

The high level API exposes capnproto values as regular algebraic data types.

On the plus side:

• This makes it easier to work with capnproto values using idiomatic Haskell code
• Because we have to parse the data up-front we can *validate* the data up front, so (unlike the low level API), you will not have to deal with errors while traversing the message.

Both of these factors make the high level API generally more pleasant to work with and less error-prone than the low level API.

The downside is that you can't take advantage of some of the novel properties of the wire format. In particular:

• It is theoretically slower, as there is a marshalling step involved (actual performance has not been measured).
• You can't mmap a file and read in only part of it.
• You can't modify a message in-place.

### Example

As a running example, we'll use the following schema (borrowed from the C++ implementation's documentation):

# addressbook.capnp
@0xcd6db6afb4a0cf5c;

struct Person {
id @0 :UInt32;
name @1 :Text;
email @2 :Text;
phones @3 :List(PhoneNumber);

struct PhoneNumber {
number @0 :Text;
type @1 :Type;

enum Type {
mobile @0;
home @1;
work @2;
}
}

employment :union {
unemployed @4 :Void;
employer @5 :Text;
school @6 :Text;
selfEmployed @7 :Void;
# We assume that a person is only one of these.
}
}

people @0 :List(Person);
}

Once the capnp and capnpc-haskell executables are installed and in your $PATH, you can generate code for this schema by running: capnp compile -ohaskell addressbook.capnp This will create the following files relative to the current directory: • Capnp/Gen/Addressbook.hs • Capnp/Gen/Addressbook/Pure.hs • Capnp/Gen/ById/Xcd6db6afb4a0cf5c/Pure.hs • Capnp/Gen/ById/Xcd6db6afb4a0cf5c.hs The modules under ById are an implementation detail. Capnp/Gen/Addressbook.hs is generated code for use with the low level API. Capnp/Gen/Addressbook/Pure.hs is generated code for use with the high level API. The latter will export the following data declarations (cleaned up for readability). module Capnp.Gen.Addressbook.Pure where import Data.Int import Data.Text (Text) import Data.Vector (Vector) import Data.Word data AddressBook = AddressBook { people :: Vector Person } data Person = Person { id :: Word32 , name :: Text , email :: Text , phones :: Vector Person'PhoneNumber , employment :: Person'employment } data Person'PhoneNumber = Person'PhoneNumber { number :: Text , type_ :: Person'PhoneNumber'Type } data Person'employment = Person'employment'unemployed | Person'employment'employer Text | Person'employment'school Text | Person'employment'selfEmployed | Person'employment'unknown' Word16 data Person'PhoneNumber'Type = Person'PhoneNumber'Type'mobile | Person'PhoneNumber'Type'home | Person'PhoneNumber'Type'work | Person'PhoneNumber'Type'unknown' Word16 Note that we use the single quote character as a namespace separator for namespaces within a single capnproto schema. The module also exports instances of several type classes: • Show • Read • Eq • Generic from GHC.Generics • Default from the data-default package. • A number of type classes defined by the capnp package. • Capnproto enums additionally implement the Enum type class. Using the Default instance to construct values means that your existing code will continue to work if new fields are added in the schema, but it also makes it easier to forget to set a field if you had intended to. The instance maps def to the default value as defined by capnproto, so leaving out newly-added fields will do The Right Thing. The module Capnp exposes the most frequently used functionality from the capnp package. We can write an address book message to standard output using the high-level API like so: {-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-} -- Note that DuplicateRecordFields is usually needed, as the generated -- code relys on it to resolve collisions in capnproto struct field -- names: {-# LANGUAGE DuplicateRecordFields #-} import Capnp.Gen.Addressbook.Pure -- Note that Capnp re-exports def, as a convienence import Capnp (putValue, def) import qualified Data.Vector as V main = putValue AddressBook { people = V.fromList [ Person { id = 123 , name = "Alice" , email = "alice@example.com" , phones = V.fromList [ def { number = "555-1212" , type_ = Person'PhoneNumber'Type'mobile } ] , employment = Person'employment'school "MIT" } , Person { id = 456 , name = "Bob" , email = "bob@example.com" , phones = V.fromList [ def { number = "555-4567" , type_ = Person'PhoneNumber'Type'home } , def { number = "555-7654" , type_ = Person'PhoneNumber'Type'work } ] , employment = Person'employment'selfEmployed } ] } putValue is equivalent to hPutValue stdout; hPutValue may be used to write to an arbitrary handle. We can use getValue (or alternately hGetValue) to read in a message: -- ... import Capnp (getValue, defaultLimit) -- ... main = do value <- getValue defaultLimit print (value :: AddressBook) Note the type annotation; there are a number of interfaces in the library which dispatch on return types, and depending on how they are used you may have to give GHC a hint for type inference to succeed. The type of getValue is: getValue :: FromStruct ConstMsg a => Int -> IO a ...and so it may be used to read in any struct type. defaultLimit is a default value for the traversal limit, which acts to prevent denial of service vulnerabilities; See the documentation in Capnp.TraversalLimit for more information. getValue uses this argument both to catch values that would cause excessive resource usage, and to simply limit the overall size of the incoming message. The default is approximately 64 MiB. If an error occurs, an exception will be thrown of type Error from the Capnp.Errors module. ### Code Generation Rules The complete rules for how capnproto types map to Haskell are as follows: • Integer types and booleans map to the obvious corresponding Haskell types. • Float32 and Float64 map to Float and Double, respectively. • Void maps to the unit type, (). • Lists map to Vectors from the Haskell vector package. Note that right now we use boxed vectors for everything; at some point this will likely change for performance reasons. Using the functions from Data.Vector.Generic will probably decrease the amount of code you will need to modify when upgrading. • Text maps to (strict) Text from the Haskell text package. • Data maps to (strict) ByteStrings • Type constructor names are the fully qualified (within the schema file) capnproto name, using the single quote character as a namespace separator. • Structs map to record types. The name of the data constructor is the same as the name of the type constructor. • Groups are treated mostly like structs, except that the data constructor (but not the type constructor) has an extra trailing single-quote. This is to avoid name collisions that would otherwise be possible. • Field names map to record fields with the same names. Names that are Haskell keywords have an underscore appended to them, e.g. type_ in the above example. These names are not qualified; we use the DuplicateRecordFields extension to disambiguate them. • Union fields result in an auxiliary type definition named <containing type's name>'<union field name>. For an example, see the mapping of the employment field above. • Unions and enums map to sum types, each of which has a special unknown' variant (note the trailing single quote). This variant will be returned when parsing a message which contains a union tag greater than what was defined in the schema. This is most likely to happen when dealing with data generated by software using a newer version of the same schema. The argument to the data constructor is the value of the tag. • Union variants with arguments of type Void map to data constructors with no arguments. • The type for an anonymous union has the same name as its containing struct with an extra single quote on the end. You can think of this as being like a field with the empty string as its name. The Haskell record accessor for this field is named union' (note the trailing single quote). • As a special case, if a struct consists entirely of one anonymous union, the type for the struct itself is omitted, and the name of the type for the union does not have the trailing single quote (so its name is what the name of the struct type would be). • Fields of type AnyPointer map to the types defined in Capnp.Untyped.Pure. • Interfaces generated associated type classes and client types; see the section on RPC. ## Low Level API The low level API exposes a much more imperative interface than the high-level API. Instead of algebraic data types, types are exposed as opaque wrappers around references into a message, and accessors are generated for the fields. This API is much closer in spirit to that of the C++ reference implementation. Because the low level interfaces do not parse and validate the message up front, accesses to the message can result in errors. Furthermore, the traversal limit needs to be tracked to avoid denial of service attacks. Because of this, access to the message must occur inside of a monad which is an instance of MonadThrow from the exceptions package, and MonadLimit, which is defined in Capnp.TraversalLimit. We define a monad transformer LimitT for the latter. ### Example We'll use the same schema as above for our example. Instead of standard algebraic data types, the module Addressbook primarily defines newtype wrappers, which should be treated as opaque, and accessor functions for the various fields. newtype AddressBook msg = ... get_Addressbook'people :: ReadCtx m msg => AddressBook msg -> m (List msg (Person msg)) newtype Person msg = ... get_Person'id :: ReadCtx m msg => Person msg -> m Word32 get_Person'name :: ReadCtx m msg => Person msg -> m (Text msg)  ReadCtx is a type synonym: type ReadCtx m msg = (Message m msg, MonadThrow m, MonadLimit m)  Note the following: • The generated data types are parametrized over a msg type. This is the type of the message in which the value is contained. This can be either ConstMsg in the case of an immutable message, or MutMsg s for a mutable message (where s is the state token for the monad in which the message may be mutated). • The Text and List types mentioned in the type signatures are types defined within the capnp library, and are similarly views into the underlying message. • Access to the message happens in a monad which affords throwing exceptions, tracking the traversal limit, and of course reading the message. The snippet below prints the names of each person in the address book: {-# LANGUAGE ScopedTypeVariables #-} import Prelude hiding (length) import Capnp.Gen.Addressbook import Capnp (ConstMsg, defaultLimit, evalLimitT, getValue, index, length, textBytes) import Control.Monad (forM_) import Control.Monad.Trans (lift) import qualified Data.ByteString.Char8 as BS8 main = do addressbook :: AddressBook ConstMsg <- getValue defaultLimit evalLimitT defaultLimit$ do
forM_ [0..length people - 1] $\i -> do name <- index i people >>= get_Person'name >>= textBytes lift$ BS8.putStrLn name

Note that we use the same getValue function as in the high-level example above.

### Write Support

Writing messages using the low-level API has a similarly imperative feel. The below constructs the same message as in our high-level example above:

import Capnp.Gen.Addressbook

import Capnp
( MutMsg
, PureBuilder
, cerialize
, createPure
, defaultLimit
, index
, newMessage
, newRoot
, putMsg
)

import qualified Data.Text as T

main =
let Right msg = createPure defaultLimit buildMsg
in putMsg msg

buildMsg :: PureBuilder s (MutMsg s)
buildMsg = do
-- newMessage allocates a new, initially empty, mutable message:
msg <- newMessage

-- newRoot allocates a new struct as the root object of the message.
-- In this case the type of the struct can be inferred from our later

-- new_* accessors allocate a new value of the correct type for a
-- given field. These functions accordingly only exist for types
-- which are encoded as pointers (structs, lists, bytes...). In
-- the case of lists, these take an extra argument specifying a
-- the length of the list:

-- Index gets an object at a specified location in a list. Cap'N Proto
-- lists are flat arrays, and in the case of structs the structs are
-- unboxed, so there is no need to allocate each element:
alice <- index 0 people

-- set_* functions set the value of a field. For fields of non-pointer
-- types (integers, bools...), We can just pass the value we want to set_*,
-- rather than allocating via new_* first:
set_Person'id alice 123

-- 'cerialize' is used to marshal a value into a message. Below, we copy
-- the text for Alice's name and email address into the message, and then
-- use Person's set_* functions to attach the resulting objects to our
-- Person:
set_Person'name alice =<< cerialize msg (T.pack "Alice")
set_Person'email alice =<< cerialize msg (T.pack "alice@example.com")

phones <- new_Person'phones 1 alice
mobilePhone <- index 0 phones
set_Person'PhoneNumber'number mobilePhone =<< cerialize msg (T.pack "555-1212")
set_Person'PhoneNumber'type_ mobilePhone Person'PhoneNumber'Type'mobile

-- Setting union fields is slightly awkward; we have an auxiliary type
-- for the union field, which we must get_* first:
employment <- get_Person'employment alice

-- Then, we can use set_* to set both the tag of the union and the
-- value:
set_Person'employment'school employment =<< cerialize msg (T.pack "MIT")

bob <- index 1 people
set_Person'id bob 456
set_Person'name bob =<< cerialize msg (T.pack "Bob")
set_Person'email bob =<< cerialize msg (T.pack "bob@example.com")

phones <- new_Person'phones 2 bob
homePhone <- index 0 phones
set_Person'PhoneNumber'number homePhone =<< cerialize msg (T.pack "555-4567")
set_Person'PhoneNumber'type_ homePhone Person'PhoneNumber'Type'home
workPhone <- index 1 phones
set_Person'PhoneNumber'number workPhone =<< cerialize msg (T.pack "555-7654")
set_Person'PhoneNumber'type_ workPhone Person'PhoneNumber'Type'work
employment <- get_Person'employment bob
set_Person'employment'selfEmployed employment

pure msg

# RPC

This package supports level 1 Cap'n Proto RPC. The tuotrial will demonstrate the most basic features of the RPC system with example: an echo server & client. For a larger example which demos more of the protocol's capabilities, see the calculator example in the source repository's examples/ directory.

Given the schema:

@0xd0a87f36fa0182f5;

interface Echo {
echo @0 (query :Text) -> (reply :Text);
}

In the low level module, the code generator generates a newtype wrapper called Echo around a capability.

Most of the interesting stuff is in the high-level module (but note that you can still do RPC using low-level serialization APIs). The code generator will create an API like (after a bit of cleanup):

newtype Echo = Echo Client

class MonadIO m => Echo'server_ m cap where
echo'echo :: cap -> Server.MethodHandler m Echo'echo'params Echo'echo'results

instance Echo'server_ IO Echo

export_Echo :: Echo'server_ IO a => Supervisors -> a -> STM Echo

The type Echo is a handle to an object (possibly remote), which can be used to make method calls. It is a newtype wrapper around a Client, which provides similar facilities, but doesn't know about the schema.

To provide an implementation of the Echo interface, you need an instance of the Echo'server_ type class. The export_Echo function is used to convert such an instance into a handle to the object that can be passed around.

Each time you call export_Function, it creates a thread that handles incoming messages in sequence.

Note that capnproto does not have a notion of "clients" and "servers" in the traditional networking sense; the two sides of a connection are symmetric. In capnproto terminology, a "client" is a handle for calling methods, and a "server" is an object that handles methods -- but there may be many of either or both of these on each side of a connection.

Here is an an echo (networking) server using this interface:

{-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses #-}
import Network.Simple.TCP (serve)

import Capnp     (def, defaultLimit)
-- 'Capnp.Rpc' exposes the most commonly used parts of the RPC system:
import Capnp.Rpc
(ConnConfig(..), handleConn, pureHandler, socketTransport, toClient)

import Capnp.Gen.Echo.Pure

-- | A type to declare an instance on:
data MyEchoServer = MyEchoServer

-- The main logic of an echo server:
instance Echo'server_ IO MyEchoServer where
-- Each method of an interface generates a corresponding
-- method in its type class. The name of the method is prefixed
-- with the name of the interface, so method bar on interface
-- Foo will be called foo'bar.
--
-- The type of a method is left abstract, and functions like
-- 'pureHandler' are used to construct method handlers; see the
-- "Handling method calls" section in the docs for 'Capnp.Rpc'.
echo'echo = pureHandler $\MyEchoServer params -> pure def { reply = query params } main :: IO () main = serve "localhost" "4000"$ \(sock, _addr) ->
-- once we get a network connection, we use 'handleConn' to start
-- the rpc subsystem on that connection. It takes a transport with
-- which to send messages, and a config.
handleConn (socketTransport sock defaultLimit) def
{ getBootstrap = \sup ->
-- The only setting we override in this example is our
-- bootstrap interface. The bootstrap interface is a "default"
-- object that clients can request on startup. By default
-- there is none, here we provide a client for our echo server.
Just . toClient <$> export_Echo sup MyEchoServer } The echo client looks like: {-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-} module Examples.Rpc.EchoClient (main) where import Network.Simple.TCP (connect) import Capnp (def, defaultLimit) import Capnp.Rpc (ConnConfig(..), handleConn, socketTransport, wait, (?)) import Capnp.Gen.Echo.Pure main :: IO () main = connect "localhost" "4000"$ \(sock, _addr) ->
handleConn (socketTransport sock defaultLimit) def
-- In this case, we leave 'getBootstrap' empty and set
-- 'withBootstrap', which will request the other side's
-- bootstrap interface. If a non-Nothing value is supplied for
-- 'withBootstrap', 'handleConn' will exit (and disconnect)
-- when it completes.
{ withBootstrap = Just \$ \_sup client ->
-- Clients also have instances of their server_ classes, so
-- can use these instances to call methods on the remote
-- object. The '?' is the message send operator.
--
-- The method call _immediately_ returns, yielding a promise
-- that will be fulfilled when the results of the call actually
-- arive. We use 'wait' to wait for the promise to resolve,
-- display the result to the user, and then exit.
echo'echo (Echo client) ? def { query = "Hello, World!" }
>>= wait
>>= print
}