O'Clock
Overview
O'Clock is the library that provides typesafe time units data types.
Most understandable use case is using threadDelay
function.
If you want to wait for 5 seconds in your program, you need to write something like this:
threadDelay (5 * 10^(6 :: Int))
With O'Clock you can write in several more convenient ways (and use more preferred to you):
threadDelay $ sec 5
threadDelay (Time @Second 5)
threadDelay @Second 5
Features
O'Clock
provides the following features to its users:

Single data type for all time units.
 Different time units represented as different type parameters for single
Time
data type.
Amount of required boilerplate is minimal.

Time stored as Rational
number.
 It means that if you convert
900
milliseconds to seconds, you will have 0.9
second instead of 0
seconds.
So property toUnit @to @from . toUnit @from @to ≡ id
is satisfied.

Different unit types are stored as rational multiplier in type.
oclock
package introduces its own kind Rat
for typelevel rational numbers.
Units are stored as rational multipliers in type. Because of that some computation is performed on typelevel.
So if you want to convert Week
to Day
, oclock
library ensures that time units will just be multipled by 7
.

Functions from base
that work with time are converted to more timesafe versions:
 These functions are:
threadDelay
, timeout
, getCPUTime
.

Externally extensible interface.
 It means that if you want to roll out your own time units and use it in your project,
this can be done in easy and convenient way (see tutorial below).

O'Clock
contains useful instances like Hashable
, NFData
, Serialise
, ToJSON
, FromJSON
but it's not included to the package by default. To do that you need to provide corresponding
flag from this list: hashable
, deepseq
, serialise
and aeson
.
Note: features support for GHC8.2.2
and GHC8.0.2
is quite limited.
Example: How to make your own time unit
This README section contains tutorial on how you can introduce your own time units.
Let's solve the following problem:
You're CEO of big company. Your employers report you number of hours they worked this month.
You want format hours in more humanreadable way, i.e. in number of work weeks and work days.
So we want 140 hours
be formatted as 3ww2wd
(3 full work weeks and 2 full work days).
Setting up
Since this tutorial is literate haskell file, let's first write some pragmas and imports.
{# LANGUAGE CPP #}
{# LANGUAGE DataKinds #}
{# LANGUAGE TypeApplications #}
{# LANGUAGE TypeFamilies #}
{# LANGUAGE TypeOperators #}
module Main where
#if ( __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 804 )
import Time (type (*))
#endif
import Time ((:%), (:), Time, Hour, UnitName,floorUnit, hour, seriesF, toUnit)
Introduce custom units
You need to write some code in order to introduce your own time units. In our task we need
work day represented as 8
hours and work week represented as 5
work days.
  Time unit for a working day (8 hours).
#if ( __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 804 )
type WorkDay = 8 * Hour
#else
type WorkDay = 28800 :% 1
#endif
  Time unit for a work week (5 working days).
#if ( __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 804 )
type WorkWeek = 5 * WorkDay
#else
type WorkWeek = 144000 :% 1
#endif
 this allows to use 'Show' and 'Read' functions for our time units
type instance UnitName (28800 :% 1) = "wd"  One WorkDay contains 28800 seconds
type instance UnitName (144000 :% 1) = "ww"  One WorkWeek contains 144000 seconds
Calculations
Now let's implement main logic of our application. Our main function should take hours,
convert them to work weeks and work days and then show in human readable format.
calculateWork :: Time Hour > (Time WorkWeek, Time WorkDay)
calculateWork workHours =
let completeWeeks = floorUnit $ toUnit @WorkWeek workHours
completeDays = floorUnit $ toUnit @WorkDay workHours : toUnit completeWeeks
in (completeWeeks, completeDays)
formatHours :: Time Hour > String
formatHours hours = let (weeks, days) = calculateWork hours in show weeks ++ show days
After that we can simply print the output we wanted.
Thought we have special function for this kind of formatting purposes seriesF
.
So the similar result (but not rounded) can be gained with the usage of it. Check it out:
main :: IO ()
main = do
putStrLn $ "The result: " ++ formatHours (hour 140)
putStrLn $ "With seriesF: " ++ (seriesF @'[WorkWeek, WorkDay] $ hour 140)
And the output will be
The result: 3ww2wd
With seriesF: 3ww2+1/2wd